Life Stories: World-Renowned Scientists Reflect on Their Lives and the Future of Life on Earth

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Heather Newbold
University of California Press, Apr 22, 2000 - Biography & Autobiography - 234 pages
"This unusual collection of conversations with leading environmental thinkers breaks down the conventional separation between thinking and living. The presentations of ecological ideas are not only superior but often eloquent and powerful, and incorporate the latest information available. Since many of the chapters give quite full accounts of the interviewees' careers, the book will also provide inspiration to young readers." —Ernest Callenbach, author of Ecology: A Pocket Guide

"The recurring theme of environmental emergency comes through loud and clear in all of the interviews, but this book also shows that it is people who make things happen, not the great gray 'they' or 'we.' We learn exactly who it was that discovered the hole in the ozone layer and who invented the ideas of Gaia and the Population Bomb. . . . If I had my way I would make this book required reading for students across all disciplines, because its message is profound, urgent, compelling, and relevant to everyone."—Anthony J. F. Griffiths, University of British Columbia, Winner of the Genetics Society of Canada Award of Excellence

"Life Stories should be required reading. The reverence for life expressed by these heroes is deeply moving. Their fierce determination ought to inspire all of us as we confront the environmental challenges of the new millennium." —Denis Hayes, International Chair, Earth Day 2000

"We start the twenty-first century with a heightened awareness that our planet is under stress. Life Stories illustrates that the human spirit has the capacity to set forces in motion that will save our habitat. Heather Newbold introduces us to scientists who have probed the mysteries of our natural systems and taken action so our Earth can heal itself. As we meet them, our own hope for the future is inspired."—Peter A. A. Berle, host of The Environment Show on Public Radio

"These mini-autobiographies are captivating, challenging, and worrisome. We can successfully meet the challenge, but will we? This is attention-grabbing stuff. Once you start reading this book it will capture and hold you to the last page."—Senator Gaylord Nelson, founder of Earth Day
 

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Contents

PAUL EHRLICH
16
Primary Producers
28
THOMAS LOVEJOY
42
DAVID SUZUKI
55
WOODWELL
74
RUTH PATRICK
85
ELLIOTT NORSE
93
MAX NICHOLSON
109
JOHN FIROR
141
LESTER BROWN
156
NORMAN MYERS
169
The
183
HENRY KENDALL
193
GLOSSARY
203
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
213
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
219

MARTIN HOLDGATE
121
SHERWOOD ROWLAND
134

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About the author (2000)

Heather Newbold is an independent scholar and writer.
Read the Mini-Biographies of the Scientists:
These brief descriptions necessarily omit many of these scientists' important achievements, awards, publications, and administrative contributions. Note, too, that the Nobel Prize is not awarded in the life sciences.
Lester Brown was an international agricultural analyst with the United States Department of Agriculture's Foreign Agricultural Service, adviser to secretary of agriculture Orville Freeman on foreign agricultural policy, and administrator of the department's International Agricultural Development Service. He helped establish the Overseas Development Council, of which he became a senior fellow. In 1974 he founded the Worldwatch Institute to analyze global environmental issues. He continues to run the institute and oversee its research. In addition to books, a magazine, and periodic reports, it publishes the widely read State of the World reports.
Paul Ehrlich, professor of population studies and president of the Center for Conservation Biology at Stanford University, has researched ecology, entomology, evolutionary biology, and behavior, doing fieldwork all over the world. With Peter Raven, he developed the concept of coevolution. Of his thirty books, the best known is The Population Bomb, which led him to found the organization Zero Population Growth. He is internationally known for presciently warning of the dangers of overconsumption and overpopulation for the carrying capacity of the planet.
John Firor researched cosmic particle physics at the University of Chicago and then studied radioastronomy at the Carnegie Institution of Washington. His study of solar radio waves led him to the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder, which later became the base of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). After being associate director in charge of solar research, Firor became director of NCAR and remained in management for over thirty years. His research contributions include solar-terrestrial relations, the physics of Earth's atmosphere, the impact of climate change, and policy use of scientific information.
Martin Holdgate was chief biologist of the British Antarctic Survey, deputy director (for research) of the British Nature Conservancy, and first director of the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology. In Britain, he was the first director of the Central Unit on Environmental Pollution and then chief scientist of the Departments of Environment and Transportation. He was president of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Program and director general of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature/World Conservation Union. He is president of the Zoological Society of London.
Henry Kendall won the Nobel Prize in physics for the discovery of quarks. A professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he researched meson and neutrino physics, nucleon structure, and high-energy electron scattering. He warned of safety hazards in the nuclear power industry, the dangers of nuclear weapons, and the impracticality of space-based weapons. He led the scientific community in assessing and developing means to control the adverse effects of advanced technologies. Until his untimely death, he was chair of the Union of Concerned Scientists, which he cofounded to conduct technical studies and provide public education to advance responsible public policies on issues in which science and technology play a critical role. He initiated the "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity" to bring public attention to the threats of global environmental degradation to Earth's life-support systems.
Thomas Lovejoy directed the science program of the World Wildlife Fund-United States and undertook a giant experiment in Brazil's rain forest, the Minimum Critical Size of Ecosystems Project, which became the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project. Later he originated innovative debt-for-nature swaps for international conservation. He also started the popular public television series Nature. He is head of Biodiversity and Environmental Affairs for the Smithsonian Institution, science adviser to the U.S. secretary of the interior, and chief biodiversity adviser at the World Bank.
James Lovelock, who has a Ph.D. in medicine and a D.Sc. in biophysics, worked at the National Institute for Medical Research in London. Later he collaborated on lunar and planetary research with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. His interdisciplinary research covers such broad fields as medicine, biology, geophysiology, and instrument science. He has filed over fifty patents for his inventions, and one, the electron-capture detector, first revealed the ubiquitous distribution of pesticide residues, PCBs, nitrous oxide, and the CFCs responsible for atmospheric ozone depletion. He is best known for originating the Gaia hypothesis.
Norman Myers initially documented the destruction of the world's rain forests and then identified and originated the strategy of conserving biodiversity "hot spots." As a conservation biologist and ecologist and international consultant on sustainable development, he has worked in over eighty countries on issues as varied as mass extinction of species, tropical forests, savannahs, and grasslands, global warming, population growth in developing countries, resource waste in developed countries, environmental economics, and the environmental dimensions of national and international security.
Max Nicholson, renowned conservationist, helped establish the Edward Gray Institute and the British Trust for Ornithology. He drafted "A National Plan for Britain," the basis of a socioeconomic group PEP (Political and Economic Planning). After World War II he was head of the office of the deputy prime minister. When the government created the British Nature Conservancy, he became its director general. Later he was a founder of the World Wildlife Fund/World Wide Fund for Nature. He also started and was chair of Earthwatch Europe and was head of the world conservation section of the International Biological Programme.
Elliott Norse was a marine biologist with the Environmental Protection Agency before becoming staff ecologist for the President's Council on Environmental Quality. Later he became public policy director of the Ecological Society of America and opened its Washington, D.C., office. He then compiled two books on American forests for the Wilderness Society. After being chief scientist at the Center for Marine Conservation, he founded the Marine Conservation Biology Institute to advance interdisciplinary research and collaboration in the emerging field of marine conservation biology. For further information, contact the Marine Conservation Biology Institute, 15806 NE 47th Court, Redmond, WA 98052.
Ruth Patrick's extensive research on diatoms led her to expand her study of their taxonomy, physiology, and ecology to an analysis of the aquatic environments that they inhabit. She invented the diatometer to detect pollution in freshwater conditions. Her field research focused on the biodiversity of rivers and how these ecosystems function under natural and polluted conditions. She founded the Limnology Department (now the Environmental Research Division) at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia and later became chair of its board of trustees.
Peter Raven is director of the Missouri Botanical Garden, where he has developed botanical field research programs undertaken around the world, as well as the Center for Plant Conservation, a national consortium to preserve endangered species. In addition to heading a variety of international projects and committees, he is home secretary for the National Academy of Sciences and has convened studies for the National Science Foundation and the National Research Council on systematic and evolutionary biology and ecology, biodiversity, and other related interdisciplinary research.
Joseph Rotblat, a nuclear physicist, was the only scientist to leave the Manhattan Project on principle. Ever since resigning, he has campaigned for nuclear disarmament and organized scientists for arms control. He chaired the press conference for the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, was cofounder of the Atomic Scientists Association, organized and still heads the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, cofounded the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, and was president of the International Science Forum, in addition to heading organizations in the field of nuclear medicine. In 1995 Joseph Rotblat and Pugwash were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Sherwood Rowland created and was the first chair of the chemistry department of the University of California's Irvine campus. Previously he researched radioactive atoms and developed the subfield of tritium "hot-atom" chemistry. When his interest in chemical kinetics and photochemistry led him to determine the atmospheric fate of chlorofluorocarbons, he discovered that they were destroying stratospheric ozone. Realizing the environmental consequences of ozone depletion, he testified in legislative hearings to regulate CFC production. In 1995 Rowland and his colleague Mario Molina won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
David Suzuki was a professor at the University of British Columbia, doing genetics research, before he began his syndicated newspaper column, the radio program Quirks and Quarks, the television series Suzuki on Science, and the ongoing TV series The Nature of Things. In addition to producing over one hundred major research papers and textbooks, he has written twenty-five popular books. In 1989 his five-part Canadian Broadcasting Corporation radio series about the global environment, It's a Matter of Survival, brought such an impassioned public response that he started the David Suzuki Foundation to find solutions and create sustainable communities. For more information, contact the David T. Suzuki Foundation, 2211 West Fourth Avenue, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6K 4S2.
George M. Woodwell studies the structure and function of natural communities and their role as segments of the biosphere. He also investigates biotic impoverishment, especially the circulation and effects of persistent toxins, the ecological effects of ionizing radiation, and biotic interactions related to global warming. He was the founder and director of the Ecosystems Center at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and also of the Woods Hole Research Center for global environmental research and policy. He was a founder of the Environmental Defense Fund and a founding trustee of the Natural Resources Defense Council and the World Resources Institute. He has headed many groups and was chair of the World Wildlife Fund and president of the Ecological Society of America. He also headed the Nuclear Winter Symposium, the conference on the long-term biological consequences of nuclear war. An expert on the basic metabolism of ecosystems and the global carbon cycle, he contributed substantially to the "Framework on Climate Change" adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, and he established a World Commission on Forests to protect all of Earth's forests.

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