Constructing Frames of Reference: An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Ethnographic and Environmental Data Sets
Many consider Lewis Binford to be the single most influential figure in archaeology in the last half-century. His contributions to the "New Archaeology" changed the course of the field, as he argued for the development of a scientifically rigorous framework to guide the excavation and interpretation of the archaeological record. This book, the culmination of Binford's intellectual legacy thus far, presents a detailed description of his methodology and its significance for understanding hunter-gatherer cultures on a global basis. This landmark publication will be an important step in understanding the great process of cultural evolution and will change the way archaeology proceeds as a scientific enterprise.
This work provides a major synthesis of an enormous body of cultural and environmental information and offers many original insights into the past. Binford helped pioneer what is now called "ethnoarchaeology"—the study of living societies to help explain cultural patterns in the archaeological record—and this book is grounded on a detailed analysis of ethnographic data from about 340 historically known hunter-gatherer populations. The methodological framework based on this data will reshape the paradigms through which we understand human culture for years to come.
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The Plot Thickens
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Complexity Stability Symmetry
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100 square kilometers aboveground productivity aquatic resources arguments biomass California California California chapter climatic complexity cultural defined dependency ratio dependent upon aquatic dependent upon terrestrial distribution dynamics earth’s ecological effective temperature environmental environments equation ethnographic expected exploitation factors figure food resources foraging forest frame of reference gatherers graph group size group sizes GROUP1 GROUP2 units growing season habitat hunter-gatherer groups increases intensification inuit locations log10 value males Mbuti mobility mounted hunters mutualists Natufian niche effectiveness number of persons observed occur ojibwa organization organizational packing threshold paiute pattern percent percentage plant community polygyny population density primarily dependent processes projected property space Proposition rainfall range region relationship relative residential response result sample scale shoshoni social species square kilometers Steward storage strategies subsistence diversity tactics temperature tended facilities terrestrial animals Terrestrial Model terrestrial plants tion tropical ungulates variability weather station Younger Dryas zone