The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea: 1840–1920
In this fascinating study, Carol Hakim presents a new and original narrative on the origins of the Lebanese national idea. Hakim’s study reconsiders conventional accounts that locate the origins of Lebanese nationalism in a distant legendary past and then trace its evolution in a linear and gradual manner. She argues that while some of the ideas and historical myths at the core of Lebanese nationalism appeared by the mid-nineteenth century, a coherent popular nationalist ideology and movement emerged only with the establishment of the Lebanese state in 1920. Hakim reconstructs the complex process that led to the appearance of fluid national ideals among members of the clerical and secular Lebanese elite, and follows the fluctuations and variations of these ideals up until the establishment of a Lebanese state. The book is an essential read for anyone interested in the evolution of nationalism in the Middle East and beyond.
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The Lebanese Setting
The French Connection
A Map for Lebanon
4 The Church and the Mutasarrifiyya
An Equivocal Legacy
6 The Secular Elite and the Mutasarrifiyya
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Administrative Council adopted AE Beirut AE Levant SL aspirations asserted autonomy Bashir Bashir II Beaufort Béclard Bekaa Bekaa Valley Bourrée British Bustani Catholic Christian claims consul in Beirut councilors Damascus Daud Pasha districts Documents Druze economic emigrants Emir entity establishment European events of 1860 favor Faysal foreign France France’s French consul French government French officials governor Greater Lebanon Greater Syria Guizot Hence historical Ibid ideal ideas independence influence inhabitants Isma‘il Istanbul Jouplain Kisrawan Lebanese Lebanese and Syrian Lebanese elite Lebanese nation Lebanist Liban Libanaise liberal MAE MD/T Maronite Church Maronite clergy Maronite community Maronite Patriarch Mgr Mas‘ad Mount Lebanon Mountain muqata‛jis Murad Muslim mutasarrif mutasarrifiyya regime nationalist notables Ottoman Empire Ottoman government Paris Pichon Beirut Picot political population Porte powers reform reformist region Règlement religious rule Sawda secular Shihabi social Syrian provinces Syrie tion traditional views Young Turk Young Turk Revolution