Human Evolution: Genes, Genealogies and Phylogenies
Controversy over human evolution remains widespread. However, the human genome project and genetic sequencing of many other species have provided myriad precise and unambiguous genetic markers that establish our evolutionary relationships with other mammals. Human Evolution: Genes, Genealogies and Phylogenies identifies and explains these identifiable, rare and complex markers including endogenous retroviruses, genome-modifying transposable elements, gene-disabling mutations, segmental duplications and gene-enabling mutations. The new genetic tools also provide fascinating insights into when and how many features of human biology arose: from aspects of placental structure, vitamin C dependence and trichromatic vision, to tendencies to gout, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Bringing together a decade's worth of research and tying it together to provide an overwhelming argument for the mammalian ancestry of the human species, the book will be of interest to professional scientists and students in both the biological and biomedical sciences.
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Academy of Sciences acid activity African great apes Afrotheria Alu elements apes and OWMs arose Biology and Evolution bonobo brain cancer cells chimaeric chromosome clonal codon copy number deﬁned deletion derived disease DNA sequences DNA transposons endogenous retrovirus enzyme ERV-K Euarchontoglires eutherian evolutionary exons Figure ﬁrst frameshift function gene family genetic Genome Research germ-line gibbon hominoid human endogenous human genome human-speciﬁc humans and chimps identiﬁed immune inactivation indicates intron journal LINE-1 elements lineage macaque mammalian mammals markers microRNA mitochondrial Molecular Biology molecules monkey multiple National Academy Nature non-coding non-coding RNA NWMs occurred Old World primates opsin orang-utans original phylogenetic placental PLoS possess primate primate genomes Proceedings protein protein-coding provirus pseudogenes receptor recombination reﬂect regulatory retrogenes retrotransposons retroviral retroviruses scientiﬁc selection simian species speciﬁc spliced target target-site duplications telomeric tion transcription transposable elements transposons tumour virus X chromosome