A Comprehensive Russian Grammar

Front Cover
John Wiley & Sons, May 26, 2020 - Foreign Language Study - 640 pages

The most comprehensive guide to Russian usage, fully revised and updated.

A Comprehensive Russian Grammar, by Terence Wade, is the definitive resource on Russian usage, providing complete and accurate guidance for students and professionals alike. Now in its fourth edition, this authoritative text continues to be an indispensable reference for English-speaking learners of Russian. Detailed yet accessible chapters cover the essential rules of the Russian language, placing emphasis on the nuances and problems that English speakers find especially difficult.

Thoroughly revised and updated by Russian language experts David Gillespie, Svetlana Gural, and Marina Korneeva, this edition reflects changes in the grammar, the lexis, and the contemporary practice of the language in Russia’s increasingly globalized, market-oriented economy. New content includes coverage of words and phrases from IT and social network terminology that have entered the Russian language, original contributions by leading Russian language scholars, and numerous modern usage examples taken from Russian websites, social media, and post-Soviet literature. The standard Russian language reference for English speakers for more than a quarter of a century, this volume:

  • Provides a comprehensive, user-friendly approach to Russian grammar exposition
  • Covers every essential aspect of the Russian language, including prepositions, conjunctions, numerals, and word order
  • Features updated examples and illustrations, new insights into recent developments in Russian language usage, and more consistent transliteration of Russian names
  • Includes a glossary of grammatical terms, word and subject indexes, and a complete bibliography

Part of the successful Blackwell Reference Grammars series, A Comprehensive Russian Grammar, Fourth Edition is the ideal guide and reference text for students and teachers of Russian across the English-speaking world, as well as professionals with knowledge of Russian seeking to keep pace with recent changes in the language.

 

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Contents

Pronunciation
4
The pronunciation of double consonants 13
13
Stress 14
14
Spelling rules 15
15
Use of capital and small letters in titles and names 16
16
Division of Words 18 Division into syllables 18
18
Splitting a word at the end of a line 19
19
Introductory comments 20
20
Verbs with one aspect only
269
Biaspectual verbs
270
Formation of the aspects
271
Formation of the perfective by prefixation
272
Functions of the perfective prefixes
273
Semantic differentiation of aspects
274
Formation of verbal aspects by internal modification
275
The formation of imperfectives from prefixed firstconjugation verbs
276

introductory comments 21
21
The colon The semicolon The dash 25
25
The punctuation of direct speech 28
28
Suspension points многоточиe 29
29
general 30
30
prefixation 32
32
suffixation 34
34
Gender
53
Masculine feminine and neuter gender
54
Masculine nouns
55
Feminine nouns
56
Neuter nouns
58
Indeclinable place names
60
Alphabetisms
61
Stump compounds
63
Differentiation of gender through suffixes
64
Professions
65
Animals
67
Animacy
68
Nouns which are used only in the singular
70
Nouns which have a plural form only
72
Declension chart
73
masculine nouns
74
The fleeting vowel
75
Partitive genitive in ую
76
Prepositionallocative singular in ую
77
Special masculine plural forms
79
Nouns whose genitive plural is identical with the nominative singular
82
Stress patterns in firstdeclension masculine nouns
83
neuter nouns in ο
84
nouns in e ье ь
86
Stress patterns in the plural of neuter nouns
87
nouns in aя
88
Stress patterns in seconddeclension nouns
90
softsign feminine nouns
92
Declension of neuter nouns in мя
94
The neuter noun дитя
95
Declension of surnames
96
Declension of place names
97
Declension of alphabetisms
99
Declension of hyphenated noun coordinates
100
Constructions of the type bcе пobеpнли глoby
102
Case Usage 77 The nominative
103
The vocative
104
The accusative
105
possession and relationship
106
The genitive with adjectives
107
The partitive genitive in yю
109
Genitive in y in set phrases
110
Genitive and negative
111
The genitive and accusative after negated verbs
112
Verbs that take the genitive
115
The dative as indirect object of a verb
118
Verbs that take the dative
119
Adjectives that take the dative
120
The dative as the logical subject of an infinitive
121
The instrumental in constructions denoting movements of the body
122
Use of the instrumental to denote similarity
124
Adjectives that take the instrumental
125
Nouns in apposition
127
Diminutive and Augmentative Nouns 104 Meanings and functions of the diminutive
128
Feminine diminutives
130
Neuter diminutives
131
Other diminutive suffixes
132
The Pronoun 110 Personal pronouns
134
Use of personal instead of possessive pronouns
135
Use of the nominative pronoun with э́тo
136
The pronoun мы
137
The thirdperson pronouns oн oн oн oни́
138
The reflexive pronoun ceбя́
139
The possessive pronouns мoй твoй нaш вaш
141
The possessive pronouns eг e иx
142
Declension of the interrogativerelative pronouns
144
Koтpый какй чeй ктo and чтo as relative pronouns
146
Other functions of the interrogativerelative pronouns
149
Declension of the demonstrative pronouns э́тoт тoт тaкй ceй and э́кий
150
The demonstrative pronouns э́тoт and тoт
151
Constructions of the type пpимp тoм
153
The pronouns ceй and э́кий
154
Bech IIJIbiii Bc3kHii kāzkIIbiii JIHoſjii Bc5uecknii
156
The negative pronouns HMKT HMHT HMKaki HMH The negative particle he
157
HMT
158
HMkaki and HMui
159
The indefinite pronouns KTTo KTHHyIIb KTJIHo ITTo HTHHyIIb HTJIMo KakiTo KakiiHIIy IIb KakJIHo HiiTo HiiHII...
161
The indefinite pronouns KeKT KehT KeKak
165
HKHi
166
The Adjective 144 Introduction
168
Mixed declension
169
Softending adjectives
170
the suffixes H ck and obeB
172
Adjectival endings with specific meanings
173
Nouns with more than one adjective
174
Diminutive adjectives in ehbkhiiohbkhā
176
Diminutive adjectives in obatbińeBaTbiii
177
Attributive use of the long adjective
178
Use of the long adjective with predicative meaning
179
Some uses of singular and plural adjectives
180
Adjectival nouns
181
The Short Form of the Adjective 159 Endings of the short form of the adjective
182
Adjectives which have long forms only
183
The buffer vowels e o and in the masculine short form
184
Some special short forms
185
Masculine short forms of adjectives in eнный
186
Divergence in stress between masculine neuter and plural long and short forms
187
Use of the short form to denote temporary state
188
Adjectives of dimension
189
Delimitation of meaning by the oblique case of a noun or pronoun
190
Delimitation by a prepositional phrase
191
Delimitation by a subordinate clause or an infinitive
192
The short form in generalized statements
193
The attributive comparative with блее
194
Predicative comparative forms in ее
195
Comparative short forms in e
196
The shortform comparative in predicative meaning
199
The shortform comparative in attributive meaning
201
Other functions of the shortform comparative
202
Bыcший and низший
204
The superlative with нaиблee
205
Other superlatives
206
The Numeral Cardinal Collective and Indefinite Numerals 190 The cardinal numeral
207
Declension of cardinal numerals
208
Нольнуль Meanings and usage
211
The numeral один одн одн одни
212
Полторполторы двaдве три четыре бaбе
214
Numerals five and above
216
Тыcячa thousand миллин million миллирд a thousand million биллин billion триллин trillion
218
Declension of compound numerals
219
Cardinals as numerical labels
220
Collective numerals
221
Indefinite numerals
224
Agreement of the predicate with a subject which contains a numeral
226
Ordinal Numerals 203 Formation of ordinal numerals
228
usage
230
Telling the time
232
Giving the date
235
Age
236
Quantitative nouns
237
Numerals in arithmetic
238
The Verb Conjugation 212 Infinitivepreterite stem and presentfuture stem
240
The conjugation of the verb
241
Firstconjugation verbs with stems ending in a vowel
242
Firstconjugation verbs with consonant stems I
244
verbs in ать with consonant mutation throughout conjugation
246
verbs in ти cтьзть чь
248
Mobile stress in the conjugation of firstconjugation verbs
250
presentfuture stems
251
Presentfuture endings in the second conjugation
252
Consonant change in the conjugation of secondconjugation verbs
253
Stress change in the second conjugation
254
Irregular verbs
256
The verb to be
257
Formation of the imperative
259
Stress in the imperative
261
Verbs with no л in the masculine past tense
262
Mobile stress in the past tense of verbs
264
Formation of the future imperfective and perfective
266
The buffer vowel о in conjugation
267
The aspect Introductory comments
268
Vowel mutation in secondary imperfective verbs
277
Consonant mutation in secondary imperfectives based on secondconjugation verbs
278
Secondary imperfectives based on monosyllabic verbs
279
Submeanings of some prefixed imperfectives
280
The differentiation of aspect by conjugation
281
Aspectival pairs with different roots
282
Compounds of ложить
283
The imperfective and perfective aspects
292
Aspect in the present tense
295
Aspect in the past tense
297
Use of the imperfective past to express a statement of fact
300
Use of the imperfective past to denote an action and its reverse
302
Aspectival usage when emphasis is on the identity of the person performing the action
303
Use of the imperfective past to denote a forthcoming event
305
Aspect in the future
306
The logical future
307
Use of the future to express repeated actions
308
The perfective future in warnings
309
Some uses of the imperfective imperative
310
Use of the imperative in the context of a single action
311
A command arising naturally from context
312
Negative commandswarnings
313
Use of the perfective imperative with repeated actions
314
Use of the infinitive to denote habitual actions
315
Use of the imperfective infinitive after verbs of beginning continuing and concluding
316
Inadvisable and advisable actions
317
A request to performnot to perform an action
318
Use of the infinitive after нехочу
319
Use of infinitives after verbs of motion
320
The true reflexive
321
Intransitive reflexives
322
Reflexive verbs with passive meaning
323
Reflexive verbs which express feelings and attitudes
325
Reflexive verbs that denote potential to perform an action
326
Impersonal constructions with an animate accusative or dative
327
Expression of other meanings chance sufficiency etc
328
Constructions with the secondperson singular
329
The Passive Voice 300 The passive voice Introductory comments
330
The passive expressed by imperfective reflexive verbs
331
Perfective reflexives with passive meaning
332
The Conditional and Subjunctive Moods 304 The conditional mood Introductory comments
333
Use of 1 the imperative and 2 the preposition без to express conditional meanings
334
Use of the particle бы to express desire
335
The subjunctive of purposeful endeavour
337
The expression of hypothesis
338
Concessive constructions
340
Constructions Expressing Obligation Necessity Possibility or Potential 313 The expression of obligation and necessity
341
The expression of possibility or potential
343
Verbs of Motion 315 Unidirectional and multidirectional verbs of motion
345
Imperatives of verbs of motion
347
Functions of unidirectional verbs of motion
348
Unidirectional verbs in frequentative contexts
349
Functions of multidirectional verbs of motion
350
Use of the past tense of a multidirectional verb to denote a single return journey
351
The verbs неcти ноcить веcти водить везти возить
353
Translation of to drive
354
Special meanings of пойти
356
Figurative and idiomatic uses of verbs of motion
357
Compound verbs of motion
358
Stems of compound verbs of motion
359
Spelling rules in the formation of compound verbs of motion
360
Use of the imperfective past of a compound verb of motion to denote an action and its reverse
361
Figurative and idiomatic uses of compound verbs of motion
362
Perfectives in cbased on multidirectional verbs
363
Perfectives in зa из and нabased on multidirectional verbs
364
Participles Introductory comments
365
Stress in the present active participle
366
The past active participle Formation
367
Stress in the past active participle
368
Stress in the imperfective passive participle
369
Formation of passive participles from secondary imperfectives whose primaries have no participle
370
Stress in the participles from дaть and its compounds
371
Formation of the shortform participle from secondconjugation
372
verbs in итьеть
373
Formation of the longform attributive participle from secondconjugation verbs in итьеть
374
Longform participles from verbs in ти чь зть cть
375
The long form of participles in т
377
Functions of longform participles
378
Agreement of longform participle and noun
380
Participial synonymy
381
Participles as adjectives and nouns
382
Participial adjectives
383
Distinction between shortform adjectives and shortform participles
384
Impersonal function of shortform participles
385
Formation of the imperfective gerund
386
Stress in the imperfective gerund
387
Compensation for the lack of an imperfective gerund
388
Reflexive perfective gerunds
389
Gerunds from perfective verbs in чь and зть
390
Special features of constructions with gerunds
392
Reversal of the sequence of actions expressed by main verb and gerund
393
The Adverb 381 Introductory comments
395
Adverbs derived from nouns
398
Adverbs derived from verbs
399
Adverbs derived from numerals
400
Primary spatial adverbs
401
Primary adverbs of time
402
y2K y2k He
403
EIII eii1 He
404
The temporal adverbs IIIro Iabh and HeHBho
405
Primary adverbs of manner and extent
406
Interrelating adverbs
407
Indefinite adverbs adverbs in To Himy IIb JIMo and ke
409
The negative adverbs hurl HMKyli HHOTKyſia HMKorm HMKK HMcKIEKo
411
Comparative adverbs
413
Variant forms of some comparative adverbs
414
The superlative adverb
415
The Preposition 401 Introductory comments
416
Repetition of prepositions
418
The use of в and на with geographical terminology
424
Special uses of c + genitive
432
Над + instrumental пoвpх + genitive
439
Prepositions that Denote Spatial Limit
447
Nouns that denote stages in a process
453
Prepositions with causal meaning
462
Prepositions that denote the object of feelings and attitudes
465
Prepositions that denote extent
467
Prepositions that denote purpose
470
Concessive meanings expressed by prepositions
472
Other Important Meanings Expressed by Prepositions 449 Prepositions that take the accusative
474
Prepositions that take the genitive
477
Prepositions that take the dative
479
Prepositions that take the instrumental
481
Prepositions that take the prepositional
482
The Conjunction 454 Introductory comments
484
Connective conjunctions
485
Adversative conjunctions
486
Disjunctive conjunctions
488
Subordinating Conjunctions 458 Explanatory conjunctions
489
Causal conjunctions
492
Conjunctions of purpose
494
Conjunctions of result
495
Conditional conjunctions
496
Concessive conjunctions
497
Temporal conjunctions Introductory comments
498
Temporal conjunctions which render before after by the time that until since
499
Other conjunctions of time
502
The Particle 468 The particle Introductory comments
505
The position of the particle in the sentence
506
Some of the principal meanings expressed by particles
507
Modal functions of particles
508
The meanings of individual particles
510
The aggregation of particles for increased emphasis
517
Word Order 475 Introductory comments
521
Relative position of subject and verb
524
Subject verb object
525
The position of the adjective
527
The position of the adverb
528
Sentences that contain more than one adverb or adverbial phrase
529
The position of the noun or pronoun in impersonal constructions
530
The position of particles in the sentence
531
English Words and Phrases in Modern Russian
533
Glossary
537
Bibliography
544
Subject Index
554
Word Index
571
Copyright

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About the author (2020)

Terence Wade (1930–2005) was Professor Emeritus and Research Fellow in Russian Studies at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. He wrote numerous books on the Russian language, including Prepositions in Modern Russian (1985), Russian Etymological Dictionary (1996), The Russian Language Today (with Larissa Ryazanova-Clarke, 1999) and A Russian Grammar Workbook (Wiley Blackwell, 1996).

David Gillespie is Professor at Tomsk State University, Russia. He was Professor of Russian at the University of Bath, UK, where he taught Russian language and culture since 1985. He has published ten books, contributed seventeen chapters and has written more than 100 papers on modern Russian literature, culture and film.

Svetlana Gural is Doctor of Education at Tomsk State University, Russia. She has edited numerous books including The Situational Context Effect in Non-Language-Majoring EFL Students' Meaning Comprehension (2015) and Consecutive Interpreting Training in Groups of Foreign Students (2015).

Marina Korneeva is Associate Professor in the Department of English at Tomsk State University, Russia. She is author of over a dozen peer-reviewed articles on discourse analysis referencing Russian language teaching and the forthcoming work, Methodology of Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language through Discourse Analysis (2020).

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