Smart Materials for Energy, Communications and Security

Front Cover
Igor A. Luk'yanchuk, Daoud Mezzane
Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 6, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 275 pages
Rapid evolution of trade, cultural and human relations provides the qualitative and quantitative enhancement of international collaborations, linking the countries with different economical and technological level. Delocalization of High-Tech industry inevitably leads to development of the material science and engineering researches in emergent countries, requiring transfer of know-how, restructuration of basic research and educational networks. This book presents the contributions of participants of the Advanced Research Workshop “Smart Materials for Energy, Communications and Security” (ARW SMECS; www.smecs.ferroix.net), organized in December 2007 in Marrakech in frame of the “NATO - Science for Peace” program. The objective of this event was the attempt to overview several hot topics of material physics related with problems of modern society: transformation and storage of energy, treatment and transmission of information, environmental security issues etc., with the focus of their implementation in Mediterranean Dialogue (MD) countries: Algeria, Egypt, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The workshop is an important stage in developing of the research network “Mediterranean Electronic Materials” – MEM (www.reseau-MEM.org), that has an objective to encourage the inter-Maghreb and Europe-Maghreb collaborative studies in the area of electroactive materials. Participants of the Advanced Research Workshop “Smart Materials for Energy, Communications and Security” , Marrakech, Morocco, December 2007 v vi PREFACE
 

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Contents

Multiferroic and Magnetoelecric for Spintronics
3
2 Spintronics
4
4 Multiferroic 4bit data storage
6
6 Future developments
9
Large Area Nb Nanolayers with Advanced Superconducting Properties as a Base for Superconducting Spintronics
12
2 Methodology
14
3 Results and discussion
15
4 Conclusions
19
32 The magnetoresistance data
138
4 Conclusion
143
Structural and Electrical Properties of NaniCrystalline LiC₀O₂ Cathode Material Synthesized by a Simplified Combustion Method
145
1 Introduction
146
22 Structural characterization
147
4 Conclusions
154
Ionic Transport Behavior in Na₂SO₄Li₂OMoO₃P₂O₅GLASSY System
156
1 Introduction
158

Amorphous Chalcogenide Materials with Smart Memory
21
a way towards smart memories
22
3 The singlelevel and the multilevel switching
23
4 Future trends in fundamentals
26
5 Future trends in applications
27
55 Neural network fuzzy computers
28
Magnetic Refrigeration Application to the Electron Doped Manganites
30
2 Experimental
31
4 Conclusion
39
Towards Electrochromic Devices Active in the IR Region
40
1 Introduction
41
22 Thin film structural and textural characterization
42
3 Data and result
43
4 Conclusion
50
6 Nitride Semiconductors Investigated at a Nanoscale
52
2 Particularities of IIIV nitrides
54
21 Crystal structure
55
212 Polarity
56
22 Growth
57
3 Electron microscopy
58
32 Dislocations
59
35 Quantative HRTEM
61
4 ptype doping of GaN
62
41 Structural and chemical analyses
63
42 HRTEM and EELS analyses
64
5 GaN quantum dots
67
51 GROWTH CONDITIONS
68
52 SiAIN interface
69
53 Dislocationsfree surfaces
70
54 GaNAIN QDs
74
55 Strain distribution
75
6 Conclusions
76
7 Prospective Terahertz Applications of Carbon Nanotubes
81
2 Quasimetallic carbon nanotubes as terahertz emitters
82
3 Chiral carbon nanotubes as frequency multipliers
86
4 Armchair nanotubes in a magnetic field as tunable THz detectors and emitters
87
5 Conclusions
90
Smart Materials and Concepts for Photovoltaics
97
2 The dye sensitized solar cell
98
3 Electrolytes for DSC
101
4 Materials for the counter electrode
109
5 Photovoltaic module engineering
116
51 Module technology
118
52 DSC connections
119
522 W connection
120
523 Z connection
121
6 Conclusions
122
Magnetotransport Properties of Copper Ternaries New Solar Cells Materials
127
1 Introduction
128
12 Copper ternaries of the IIIIVI₂ and IIII₃ϒVI₅ families
129
2 Brief theoretical considerations
131
22 Magnetoresistance in the variable range hopping regime
132
222 The negative magnetoresistance
133
23 Magnetoresistance in the metallic regime
134
3 Experimental Results
135
3 Data and result
159
4 Discussion
163
5 Conclusions
165
Electrical Conduction and Dielectric Properties in Piezoelectric Fibre Composites
169
1 Introduction
170
22 Characterization
171
311 Region I
175
313 Region III
180
4 Conclusions
186
New Method for Preparation of Polycrystalline Langasite for Gas Sensors Structural Studies
190
2 Experimental techniques
193
22 Characterization techniques
194
3 Results
195
32 Scanning electron microscopy and Xray emission EDS analyses
198
33 Intermediate phases and mechanism of langasite synthesis
199
34 Fourier Transform Infraded spectroscopy analyses
200
4 Conclusion
202
Dielectric Anomalies and Relaxation Behavior in Hydrothermally Proccessed PLZT Ferroelectric Ceramics
205
2 Experiment
208
3 Results and discussion
210
4 Conclusion
217
180 Ferroelectric Domains in Thin Films and Superlattices
220
2 Model description
223
3 Model implementation
225
4 Variational analysis
230
5 Conclusion
235
Clays and Clay Minerals in Western High Atlas Characterization Geological Significance and Industrial Uses
239
1 Introduction
240
3 Clays in Triassic rocks
241
4 Clays in Jurassic and Cretaceous
243
5 Clays during Tertiary
244
6 Clays of Quaternary
246
7 Conclusion
247
TEM Analysis of Advanced Devices for Electronics or Spintronics From Structure to Properties
249
2 Microstructure and properties
251
21 How can TEM image defects
252
222 High resolution imaging
253
3 Inside the nanoworld how far can we go?
254
31 Nanoparticles for magnetism
255
312 Chemical order in CoRh particles
256
32 Strain field determination in semiconducting heterostructures
257
CBED and TEM curvature
258
33 Magnetic nanolayers for high density recording
259
332 Analysis of FePd nanolayers
260
4 Conclusion
261
Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Copper Processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion
263
2 Experimental part
264
3 Data and result
265
32 The studies of the mechanical properties obtained after ECAE
266
33 Calorimetric studies
268
4 Conclusions
269
Index
271
Index of materials
274
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