## Handbook of Particle PhysicsLiterally thousands of elementary particles have been discovered over the last 50 years, their properties measured, relationships systematized, and existence and behavior explained in a myriad of cleverly constructed theories. As the field has grown so impressively, so has its jargon. Until now, scientists in other fields have had no single resource from which they can quickly reference an idea, acronym, or term and find an accessible definition and explanation. The Handbook of Particle Physics fills that void. This unique work contains, in encyclopedic form, terms of interest in particle physics, including its peculiar jargon. It covers the experimental and theoretical techniques of particle physics along with terms from the closely related fields of astrophysics and cosmology. Designed primarily for non-specialists with a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and relativity, the entries preserve a degree of rigor by providing the relevant technical and mathematical details. Clear and engaging prose, numerous figures, and historical overviews complement the handbook's convenience both as a reference and as an invitation into the fascinating world of particle physics. |

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### Contents

1 | |

2 Historical Overview of Accelerators and Colliding Beam Machines | 51 |

3 Historical Overview of Detector Developments | 65 |

GLOSSARY | 107 |

References | 427 |

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### Common terms and phrases

accelerators amplitude angular momentum annihilation antineutrinos antiparticles antiproton antiquark atomic baryon baryon number beam beta decay Bjorken called CERN chamber charged particles collider color conservation cosmic rays coupling constant cross section decay mode deep inelastic deep inelastic scattering detector Dirac electric electromagnetic electron electroweak emitted equation experimental experiments Fermi fermions Feynman field theory flavor four-momentum gauge fields gauge theory gluons hadrons Higgs high energy integral invariant involving ionization isospin isotopic spin kaons Lagrangian lepton Lett magnetic field massless matrix element measurements mesons muon neutral neutrino neutron nuclear nucleon nucleus observed operation oscillations parameter parity particle physics parton Phys pion positrons produced proton quantum number quark radiation reaction Regge relativistic renormalization resonance scattering standard model strong interactions supersymmetric symmetry theoretical tion transformation velocity wave function weak interactions zero νµ