Toronto, the Belfast of Canada: The Orange Order and the Shaping of Municipal Culture

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University of Toronto Press, Jan 1, 2015 - History - 306 pages

In late nineteenth-century Toronto, municipal politics were so dominated by the Irish Protestants of the Orange Order that the city was known as the Belfast of Canada. For almost a century, virtually every mayor of Toronto was an Orangeman and the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne was a civic holiday. Toronto, the Belfast of Canada explores the intolerant origins of today's cosmopolitan city.

Using lodge membership lists, census data, and municipal records, William J. Smyth details the Orange Order's role in creating Toronto's municipal culture of militant Protestantism, loyalism, and monarchism. One of Canada's foremost experts on the Orange Order, Smyth analyses the Orange Order's influence between 1850 and 1950, the city's frequent public displays of sectarian tensions, and its occasional bouts of rioting and mayhem.

 

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Contents

Introduction
3
The ImperialContext
11
Belfastand Toronto
33
The Natureand Structure of the Orange Order
75
4 Power Patronage and PublicEmployment within the ProtestantCity 18501920
117
Torontos Orangemen at the Closeof the Nineteenth Century
154
6 The Climax and Onset of Declineof the Orange Order 19001940
195
Toronto and Orangeism 1940c 1950
239
Conclusion
272
Notes
279
Index
303
Copyright

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About the author (2015)

William J. Smyth is the president emeritus of the National University of Ireland, Maynooth and a past president of the Geographical Society of Ireland and the Association of Canadian Studies in Ireland.

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