Immunobiology and Immunopharmacology of Bacterial Endotoxins

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 13, 2013 - Medical - 518 pages
Endotoxins are constituents of all gram negative bacteria, as well as many other microorganisms. Since their original discovery and study at the beginning and middle parts of this century, many investigations have been performed concerning their immunochemistry and physicochemistry, as well as their pharmacologic activities and physiologic effects on the host. It became widely recognized during the beginning of this century that the pyrogenicity of many microbial infections may be associated with endotoxins. Furthermore, some 80 years ago, attempts were begun to "treat" a variety of illnesses including neoplasia, with such "pyrogens", Le. , bacterial endo toxins. Inconclusive results were observed including some detrimental ones as well as, in some cases, beneficial ones. It became widely accepted that during infections with many gram negative organisms the fever occurring in patients, as well as many of the untoward pathophysiological effects of the infections, seemed to be due to the endotoxin the bacteria contained or released. In this regard, septic shock has been studied in detail by many clinicians, physiologists and pharmacologists and attempts have been made to relate the devastating effects of infection on metabolic and physiologic alterations caused by endotoxins. Recently, however, many beneficial effects of endotoxin have also been studied.
 

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Contents

INTRODUCTORY SECTION
3
Retrospective and Prospective View of Endotoxin Research
13
CHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF ENDOTOXINS
35
The Antigenic Structure of the Lipooligosaccharides
57
Relationships of Chemical Structure
65
Production of Human Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing
75
Physical Properties of ShortChain and LongChain Fractions
83
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ENDOTOXINS
97
Biochemical Immunological and Functional Analysis of Lymphocytes
315
Effects of Endogenous Gut LPS on Cells of the Secretory
329
Molecular Mechanisms in LymphokineInduced Macrophage Activation
339
Induction of Gamma Interferon by Endotoxin in Aged Murine
353
Characterization and Localization of Lipopolysaccharides Following
359
The Release of Immunopotentiating Mediators from Macrophages
369
Changes in Macrophage Progenitor Cell Composition in the Bone Marrow
381
Production of ColonyStimulating Factor CSF by Bone Marrow Cells
391

In Vivo Effects on Cellular Metabolism and Calcium Dynamics
133
Endotoxin LPS Toxicity to Hepatocytes H in Vitro
151
Effects of Endotoxin on Mixed Function Oxidase Activity
159
Myocardial Performance and Adrenergic Modulation of Cyclic
171
Cyclic Nucleotides in the Immunopharmacology
187
IMMUNOGENICITY AND NONSPECIFIC EFFECTS OF ENDOTOXIN
199
Bacteroides Species Increases Lipopolysaccharide Susceptibility
215
Protection Against Lethal Haemophilus Pleuropneumoniae Infection
233
Protective Function of Neutrophils During Experimental
257
Active Immunization with E coli J5 and its Protective Effects
265
The Effect of Endotoxin on Migration Inhibitory Factor
291
EFFECTS OF ENDOTOXINS ON CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
300
Modulation of Humoral and CellMediated Immune Responses by
405
Endotoxin Membrane Protein Complexes as Immunomodulators
421
Endotoxin Associated Proteins and Their Polyclonal
435
LipopolysaccharideInduced Recurrence of Arthritis Initiated
449
Antibiotics Immunity and Immunoenhancement
455
Restoration of Antibody Responsiveness by Endotoxin in Retrovirus
465
Endotoxin and Polysaccharide Derivative Induced Enhanced Antibody
479
Clinical Relevance of Endotoxemia
491
Contributors
503
Index
511
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