Anthropometry and Biomechanics: Theory and Application

Front Cover
Ronald Easterby
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 6, 2012 - Technology & Engineering - 328 pages
Assessment of the physical dimensions of the human body and application of this knowledge to the design of tools, equip ment, and work are certainly among the oldest arts and sciences. It would be an easy task if all anthropometric dimensions, of all people, would follow a general rule. Thus, philosophers and artists embedded their ideas about the most aesthetic proportions into ideal schemes of perfect proportions. "Golden sections" were developed in ancient India, China, Egypt, and Greece, and more recently by Leonardo DaVinci, or Albrecht Durer. However, such canons are fictive since actual human dimensions and proportions vary greatly among individuals. The different physical appearances often have been associated with mental, physiological and behavioral characteristics of the individuals. Hypocrates (about 460-377 BC) taught that there are four temperaments (actually, body fluids) represented by four body types. The psychiatrist Ernst Kretchmer (1888-1964) proposed that three typical somatotypes (pyknic, athletic, aesthenic) could reflect human character traits. Since the 1940's, W. H. Sheldon and his coworkers devised a system of three body physiques (endo-, meso-, ectomorphic). The classification was originally qualitative, and only recently has been developed to include actual measurements.
 

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Contents

Postural Research The Next Challenge
3
Evolution of the Techniques of Data Collecting
15
Implications
25
Its Hidden Dimensions
35
Present and Future Needs for Anthropometric
45
Anthropometric and Biomechanical Data Acqui
55
Anthropometry of Mentally and Physically Handi
67
Biomechanical Computer Modeling for the Design
91
The Validity of Biomechanical Models of Wolitional
179
Factor Analytic Approach to Biomechanical Modeling
193
USAF Drawing
205
Somatography in Workspace Design
215
A Systems Approach to Long Term Task Seating
225
Evaluation of Chairs Used by Air Traffic Con
234
Biomechanical and Engineering Anthropometry
241
Anthropometric and Strength Data in Tool Design
253

Some Computational Problems in Developing
103
Empirical Models of Individuals and Population
109
Overview of Methods to Assess Voluntary Exertions
127
Postural Considerations in Maximum Voluntary
135
Standardized Strength Testing Methods
145
Evaluation of Controlled Static Exertions
151
New Perspectives and Needs in Biomechanical
169
Application of Dynamic Testing and Anthropometic
269
The Collection and Application of Anthropometric
279
Computer Aided Crew Station Design for
293
Postural Considerations in Workspace Design
301
Anthropometric and Biomechanical Considerations
309
Extending the State of the Art in Anthropometry
319
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