## Interaction of Charged Particles with Solids and SurfacesAlberto Gras-Martí, Herbert M. Urbassek, Nestor R. Arista, Fernando Flores Early in 1989, while most of us were gathered in the Mediterranean five-centuries-old city of Alacant, the idea of a school on stopping and particle penetration phenomena came to our minds. Later that year when discussing this plan with some of the participants in the 13th International Conference on Atomic Collisions in Solids in Aarhus, we were pleased to note that the proposal was warmly welcomed indeed by the community. An Advanced Study Institute on this or a related subject had not been organized in the last decade. Because of the progress made particularly in the interaction of high energy beams with matter, and the many applications which the general subject of the stopping of charged particles (ions and electrons) in matter enjoys, a Study Institute appeared a worthy enterprise. Even though several international conference series cover developments in these areas, they miss tutorial introductions to the field. The title chosen was Interaction of Charged Particles with Solids and Surfaces, and the objectives were stated as follows: "to cover theory and experiments, including selected applications and hot topics, of the stopping of charged particles (ions and electrons) in matter. The emphasis will be on outlining the areas where further effort is needed, and on specifying the basic needs in applications. Fundamental concepts will prevail over applications, and the character of the Institute as a school will be stressed. " The school was directed by Fernando Flores (Spain), Herbert M. Urbassek (Germany), Nestor R. |

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### Contents

3 | |

28 | |

Density Functional Theory of Stopping Power | 39 |

Statistics of ChargedParticle Penetration 73 | 72 |

Accelerators and Stopping Power Experiments | 145 |

Charged ParticleSurface Interactions and Spectroscopies | 193 |

Low Energy Ion Penetration and Collision Cascades in Solids | 227 |

Interaction of LowEnergy Ions Atoms and Molecules with Surfaces 253 | 252 |

Effective Charge of Helium Ions in Solids | 541 |

Wake Potential in the Vicinities of a Surface | 547 |

Stopping Power of Large Molecular Clusters in Cold and Heated Solids | 557 |

A Stopping Power Formula for Helium Ions | 563 |

Survey of HeavyIons Research at CIRILGANIL | 569 |

Influence of Thickness Fluctuations on the EnergyLoss Spectra | 577 |

585 | 584 |

Energy Distribution of Electrons Excited by Slow Particles in Solids | 593 |

Applications of Ion Beams to Materials Science | 309 |

an Overview 347 | 346 |

Questions Concerning the Stopping Power of Heavy Ions in Solids | 365 |

Neutralization of Fast Protons | 387 |

On the Stopping Power of an Electron Gas | 395 |

Channeling and Channeling Radiation Theory | 421 |

Wakes Dynamic Screening | 423 |

Current Topics in Kinetic Electron Emission from Solids 443 | 442 |

Convoy Electrons | 459 |

Surface Electron Spectroscopy Importance of Particle Transport | 487 |

IonInduced Emission From Magnetic Materials | 505 |

Accurate Quantum Mechanical Calculation of Stopping Powers for 517 | 515 |

Charge Exchange and Energy Loss | 529 |

Electron Spectra from Ion Bombardment of Cleaned Surfaces | 615 |

Emission of SpinPolarized Electrons | 625 |

Positron Thermalisation in Aluminum | 631 |

Interaction of a Charged Particle 639 | 638 |

On the Experimental Verification of Various Mechanisms | 647 |

Cascade Evolution and Sputtering in Condensed Rare Gases 657 | 656 |

Monte Carlo Simulations of Deposition Processes | 667 |

Experimental Evidence of the Bond Breaking Mechanism 681 | 680 |

Degradation Development 693 | 692 |

Perspectives in ParticleSolid Interactions 701 | 699 |

AUTHOR INDEX | 711 |

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### Common terms and phrases

accelerator analyzer angular antiproton approximation Baragiola Bohr Boltzmann equation bombardment calculated capture cascade channeling Charged Particles collision convoy electrons Coulomb cross section curve dependence desorption dielectric function effects electron capture electron energy electron gas emission energy transfer equation excitation experimental Fermi Fermi energy Figure foil heavy ions Heiland impact parameter incident inelastic Instr Interaction of Charged ion beam ionization Lett Lindhard linear low energy low velocities mean free path measurements metal Meth molecule momentum Monte Carlo multiple scattering neutral Nucl observed obtained P. M. Echenique Particles with Solids peak Phys plasma plasmon positrons potential processes projectile protons R. H. Ritchie scattering angle screening shown in fig shows Sigmund simulation Solids and Surfaces spectra spectrum specular reflection sputter yield sputtering stopping power straggling Surf target atom temperature theory thickness trajectory values wake-riding yield