Contested Policy: The Rise and Fall of Federal Bilingual Education in the United States, 1960-2001

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University of North Texas Press, 2004 - Education - 168 pages
Bilingual education is one of the most contentious and misunderstood educational programs in the country. It raises significant questions about this country's national identity, the nature of federalism, power, ethnicity, and pedagogy. In Contested Policy, Guadalupe San Miguel, Jr., studies the origins, evolution, and consequences of federal bilingual education policy from 1960 to 2001, with particular attention to the activist years after 1978, when bilingual policy was heatedly contested. Traditionally, those in favor of bilingual education are language specialists, Mexican American activists, newly enfranchised civil rights advocates, language minorities, intellectuals, teachers, and students. They are ideologically opposed to the assimilationist philosophy in the schools, to the structural exclusion and institutional discrimination of minority groups, and to limited school reform. On the other hand, the opponents of bilingual education, comprised at different points in time of conservative journalists, politicians, federal bureaucrats, Anglo parent groups, school officials, administrators, and special-interest groups (such as U.S. English), favor assimilationism, the structural
 

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Contents

Origins of Federal Bilingual Education Policy
5
Contextual Factors
6
Enacting Federal Bilingual Education Legislation 19651968
12
Conclusion
18
The Expansion of Bilingual Education 19681978
26
Impact of Federal Bilingual Education Policy
37
The Emerging Opposition
41
Conclusion
46
Conclusion
99
Contextual Forces in Bilingual Education
105
Reasons for Opposing or Supporting Bilingual Education
107
Conclusion
108
Epilogue
114
Extended Bibliographic Essay
117
Contextual Factors
118
The Initial Years
122

Retrenchment and Redefinition 19801988
54
Increasing Attacks Against Bilingual Education
56
Undermining Policy and Practice
65
Conclusion
70
The Final Push 1990s
77
Decline and Resurgence of Attacks against Bilingual Education
78
Changes in Policy
83
The Repeal of Bilingual Education 2001
87
Conclusion
93
Policy Expansion 19741978
131
Policy Containment 19781984
138
Policy Redirections 19841988
146
Policy Continuation 19881994
151
Policy Stalemate 19942001
154
Policy Transformation From Bilingual to EnglishOnly 2001
158
Index
162
Copyright

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About the author (2004)

col style="width:71pt" width="94" Guadalupe San Miguel, Jr., is professor of history at the University of Houston. He is the author of "Let All of Them Take Heed": Mexican-Americans and the Campaign for Educational Equality in Texas, 1910-1981, Brown, Not White: School Integration and the Chicano Movement in Houston, and Tejano Proud: Tex-Mex Music in the Twentieth Century.

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