Background Processes in the Electrostatic Spectrometers of the KATRIN Experiment

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Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 5, 2013 - Science - 196 pages
Neutrinos continue to be the most mysterious and, arguably, the most fascinating particles of the Standard Model as their intrinsic properties such as absolute mass scale and CP properties are unknown. The open question of the absolute neutrino mass scale will be addressed with unprecedented accuracy by the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment, currently under construction. This thesis focusses on the spectrometer part of KATRIN and background processes therein. Various background sources such as small Penning traps, as well as nuclear decays from single radon atoms are fully characterized here for the first time. Most importantly, however, it was possible to reduce the background in the spectrometer by more than five orders of magnitude by eliminating Penning traps and by developing a completely new background reduction method by stochastically heating trapped electrons using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). The work beautifully demonstrates that the obstacles and challenges in measuring the absolute mass scale of neutrinos can be met successfully if novel experimental tools (ECR) and novel computing methods (KASSIOPEIA) are combined to allow almost background-free tritium -spectroscopy.
 

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Contents

1 Preamble
1
2 Introduction to Neutrino Physics
3
3 Introduction to the KATRIN Experiment
28
4 Monte Carlo Simulation Package
55
5 Muon Induced Background
77
6 Background Due to Penning Traps
89
7 Background Due to Stored Electrons Following Nuclear Decays
103
8 Active Background Reduction with Electron Cyclotron Resonance
136
A Optimization of the Spectrometer Transmission Properties with the Air Coil System
160
B Comparison of Transmission Measurements at the Prespectrometer with Kassiopeia Simulations
169
C Alternative Methods of Removing Stored Electrons
175
D Tables for Radon and Krypton Event Generator
179
E Simulation Input Parameters
181
F Vacuum Setup of Pre and Main Spectrometer
187
G Details of Background Rate Arising from Stored Electrons
189
Curriculum Vitae
192

9 Conclusion
157

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