## Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: Major Texts in PhysicsThis book presents a collection of texts by the German physicist and philosopher Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (1912-2007), for use in seminars on the history, epistemology and structure of physics. Most texts appear in English for the first time. Weizsäcker became famous through his works in physics, mainly in the early development of nuclear physics. Later he would also become well known as a philosopher and analyst of contemporary culture. Texts include the original publications of the “Weizsäcker-Bethe formula” of nuclear masses and the “Bethe-Weizsäcker cycle,” which explains the source of energy in the sun; both were developed by Bethe at the same time and independently of Weizsäcker. Further texts deal with Weizsäcker’s explanation of the origin of planets, his explanation of the “time arrow” in Statistical Mechanics and his analyses of Quantum Mechanics and the structure of physics in general. |

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### Contents

1 | |

7 | |

3 The Formation of the Planetary System | 31 |

4 The History of Nature Introduction | 45 |

5 The Second Law and the Difference Between Past and Future | 53 |

6 A Sketch of the Unity of Physics | 63 |

7 Quantum Theory | 75 |

8 Probability and Abstract Quantum Theory | 111 |

11 Matter Energy Information | 153 |

Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker Society | 173 |

Carl Friedrich von WeizsäckerFoundation | 175 |

Federation of German Scientists | 177 |

Udo Keller Stiftung Forum Humanum | 179 |

Ruhr University Bochum | 181 |

About the Author | 183 |

About the Editor | 187 |

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### Common terms and phrases

answer assume assumption atomic axioms basic Bohr build-up hypothesis Carl Friedrich classical physics closed theory concept of probability consciousness Copenhagen interpretation defined density described Drieschner elementary particle elements empirical entropy exist expectation value experience fact finite formulation Friedrich von Weizsäcker fundamental giant stars H-theorem Hanser helium hence Hilbert space hydrogen interaction interpretation Kant’s knowledge lattice logic main sequence Major Texts mass mathematical matter means measurement motion Munich neutrons nuclear reactions nuclei number of urs Ó The Author(s object orbit philosophical physicists Pioneers in Science planets possible postulate Practice 22 precise prediction present presupposes problem quantum logic quantum mechanics quantum theory question relative frequency Science and Practice Second Law semantically consistent sense SpringerBriefs on Pioneers stars statement statistical statistical ensembles structure symmetry temperature tense logic Texts in Physics theoretical ultimate propositions Unity of Physics universe ur-alternatives Weizsäcker 1980