## Galileo and the Equations of MotionThis book is intended as a historical and critical study on the origin of the equations of motion as established in Newton's Principia. The central question that it aims to answer is whether it is indeed correct to ascribe to Galileo the inertia principle and the law of falling bodies. In order to accomplish this task, the study begins by considering theories on the motion of bodies from classical antiquity, and especially those of Aristotle. The theories developed during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance are then reviewed, with careful analysis of the contributions of, for example, the Merton and Parisian Schools and Galileo’s immediate predecessors, Tartaglia and Benedetti. Finally, Galileo’s work is examined in detail, starting from the early writings. Excerpts from individual works are presented, to allow the texts to speak for themselves, and then commented upon. The book provides historical evidence both for Galileo's dependence on his forerunners and for the major breakthroughs that he achieved. It will satisfy the curiosity of all who wish to know when and why certain laws have been credited to Galileo. |

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### Contents

3 | |

2 The Theories of Motion in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance | 25 |

Part II Galileo and the Motion | 61 |

3 The Young Galileo and the de Motu | 63 |

4 The Inertia Principle | 92 |

5 The Motion of Heavy Bodies and the Trajectory of Projectiles | 117 |

6 Galileo and the Principle of Relativity | 163 |

Final Considerations | 168 |

173 | |

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acquired already Archimedes Aristotelian Aristotle Aristotle’s Avempace Averroes ball Benedetti Buridan Caverni centre century circular motion Clagett continually contrary Copernican degree of speed demonstrated Descartes descend Dialogue Discourses Dominicus downward Duhem dynamics earth edition enunciation equal experiment fact Favaro Galileo Galilei gravity greater Greek Guidobaldo Guidobaldo del Monte heavy bodies horizontal impediments impetus inclined plane inertia principle Jacopo Mazzoni kinematics Koyré letter mathematical Mazzoni Mecaniche mechanics medieval medium Merton College Mertonians mortadella Motu move moveable movement natural motion Niccolò Tartaglia Nicole Oresme obviously op.cit oscillations Paolo Sarpi parabolic passed pendulum perpendicular Philoponus philosophers physics problem projectile proportion Proposition published quoted ratio rectilinear regarding resistance rest SAGR SALV Salviati SlMP space sphere Stillman Drake Tartaglia theory things tion trajectory translation treatise uniform motion uniformly accelerated motion University of Pisa upward velocity vertical violent motion Viviani void weight