Strangeness and Charge Symmetry Violation in Nucleon Structure
This thesis discusses two key topics: strangeness and charge symmetry violation (CSV) in the nucleon. It also provides a pedagogical introduction to chiral effective field theory tailored to the high-precision era of lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Because the nucleon has zero net strangeness, strange observables give tremendous insight into the nature of the vacuum; they can only arise through quantum fluctuations in which strange–antistrange quark pairs are generated. As a result, the precise values of these quantities within QCD are important in physics arenas as diverse as precision tests of QCD, searches for physics beyond the Standard Model, and the interpretation of dark matter direct-detection experiments. Similarly, the precise knowledge of CSV observables has, with increasing experimental precision, become essential to the interpretation of many searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In this thesis, the numerical lattice gauge theory approach to QCD is combined with the chiral perturbation theory formalism to determine strange and CSV quantities in a diverse range of observables including the octet baryon masses, sigma terms, electromagnetic form factors, and parton distribution functions. This thesis builds a comprehensive and coherent picture of the current status of understanding of strangeness and charge symmetry violation in the nucleon.
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Appendix B Definitions and Identities
Appendix C Derivations for Chapter 3
Appendix D Tables of Chiral Coefficients
Appendix E Deep Inelastic Scattering and the OperatorProduct Expansion
Appendix F Chiral Extrapolation Formulae for Momentsof PDFs
Appendix G Lattice Simulation Results for theElectromagnetic Form Factors
Appendix H Additional Results for Chapter 7
Appendix A Formal Details of Heavy Mass Techniques
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A.W. Thomas baryon octet calculation Charge Symmetry Violation chiral expansion chiral extrapolation chiral perturbation theory chiral symmetry CSV effects D.B. Leinweber data set decuplet baryon deep inelastic scattering denote determined diagrams dipole Doubly effective field theory electric form factor electromagnetic form factors experimental expressions fermion Feynman finite-volume functions gluon hadronic hyperon isospin isovector Lagrangian lattice data lattice QCD lattice QCD simulation lattice results lattice simulation results lattice spacing Lett light quark low-energy lRsd magnetic form factors mass splittings mass-dependent matrix elements Mellin moments meson masses momentum Nucl nucleon octet baryon masses operator product expansion P.E. Shanahan PACS-CS parameters Phys physical point pion proton pseudoscalar meson quantities quark contributions quark flavour quark mass R.D. Young radii renormalisation Sachs form factors scale Sect sigma terms simulation sets spin spin-dependent strange nucleon strange quark Strangeness and Charge Table uncertainty values of Q2