Open Problems in Mathematics

Front Cover
John Forbes Nash, Jr., Michael Th. Rassias
Springer, Jul 5, 2016 - Mathematics - 543 pages

The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements.

The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer science, and more. Extensive discussions surrounding the progress made for each problem are designed to reach a wide community of readers, from graduate students and established research mathematicians to physicists, computer scientists, economists, and research scientists who are looking to develop essential and modern new methods and theories to solve a variety of open problems.
 

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Contents

P ? NP
1
Pair Correlation Statistics and Beyond
123
The Generalized Fermat Equation
172
The Conjecture of Birch and SwinnertonDyer
207
An Essay on the Riemann Hypothesis
224
A Quick Reminder and a Few Remarks
259
Plateaus Problem
272
The Unknotting Problem
303
The ErdősSzekeres Problem
351
Novikovs Conjecture
376
The Discrete Logarithm Problem
403
Hadwigers Conjecture
417
The HadwigerNelson Problem
439
Erdőss Unit Distance Problem
458
A Historical Perspective
479
The Hodge Conjecture
521

An Open Problem
347

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About the author (2016)

John Forbes Nash, Jr. was Senior Research Mathematician at Princeton University. Professor Nash was the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1994 and the Abel Prize in Mathematics in 2015 and is most widely known for the Nash equilibrium in game theory and the Nash embedding theorem in geometry and analysis. He was also the recipient of the John von Neumann Theory prize in 1978. Nash's groundbreaking works in game theory, algebraic & differential geometry, non-linear analysis and partial differential equations have provided insight into the factors that govern chance and events inside complex systems in daily life. Moreover, Nash's theories are widely used in economics, computing, evolutionary biology, artificial intelligence, accounting, politics and other disciplines.
Michael Th. Rassias during his collaboration in 2014-2015 with John Forbes Nash, Jr. for the preparation of this book was a postdoctoral researcher at the Departments of Mathematics of Princeton University and ETH-Zurich, working at Princeton. He is currently a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute of Mathematics of the University of Zurich and a visiting researcher at the Program in Interdisciplinary Studies of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. His research interests lie in mathematical analysis and analytic number theory. Rassias has received several awards in national and international mathematical Olympiads. He was also awarded the 2014 Notara Prize in Mathematics from the Academy of Athens. He has also authored, co-authored and co-edited five other books with Springer.