Metrology and Physical Mechanisms in New Generation Ionic Devices
This thesis presents the first direct observations of the 3D-shape, size and electrical properties of nanoscale filaments, made possible by a new Scanning Probe Microscopy-based tomography technique referred to as scalpel SPM. Using this innovative technology and nm-scale observations, the author achieves essential insights into the filament formation mechanisms, improves the understanding required for device optimization, and experimentally observes phenomena that had previously been only theoretically proposed.
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2 FilamentaryBased Resistive Switching
3 Nanoscaled Electrical Characterization
Formation Observation and Manipulation
5 ThreeDimensional Filament Observation
6 Reliability Threats in CBRAM
7 Conclusions and Outlook
Appendix A Cellulose Nanopaper Memory
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3D tomogram analysis applied atomic force microscopy atomic layer deposition Belmonte bias bottom electrode C-AFM C-AFM tomography cantilever cations CBRAM Celano cellulose CF formation characterization conductive filament conductive spot constriction current compliance current map cycles defects Degraeve deposited Detavernier diamond tip dielectric dynamic electric field electrical contact area electrochemical electroforming experimental Fantini filament formation filament observation Goux HfO2 highly conductive I–V characteristics I–V curves IEDM IEEE induced inset interface ionic Jurczak Lett limited load force LRS and HRS material removal memory devices metal nanometer nanoscale Nanotechnology nonvolatile Opsomer oxide oxide thickness oxygen PFTUNA Phys present programming current Pt/Ir quantum point contact random access memory reset transition RRAM rupture sample scale bar scalpel SPM scanning probe microscopy Schematic shown shows SiO2 solid electrolyte SPM tomography structure surface switching layer technique tip-induced tip-sample tomogram tomography tunnel Vandervorst voltage Waser