Energetic Particles in the Heliosphere
This monograph traces the development of our understanding of how and where energetic particles are accelerated in the heliosphere and how they may reach the Earth. Detailed data sets are presented which address these topics. The bulk of the observations are from spacecraft in or near the ecliptic plane. It is timely to present this subject now that Voyager-1 has entered the true interstellar medium. Since it seems unlikely that there will be a follow-on to the Voyager programme any time soon, the data we already have regarding the outer heliosphere are not going to be enhanced for at least 40 years.
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7 Studies of the High Latitude Heliosphere
8 The Anomalous Cosmic Rays
9 Studies of the Distant Heliosphere Beyond Jupiter
10 Energetic Particles from Planetary Magnetospheres
11 What About the Future?
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ACE and Ulysses active region Astron Astrophys averages beam burst charged particles coronal hole coronal mass ejections current sheet decay detected detector Earth ecliptic plane electron energy electron events energetic electrons energy bands energy spectrum EPAM events seen Figure Fisk G.M. Simnett galactic cosmic rays Geophys hard X-ray heliosheath HI-SCALE high corona high energy high latitude increase inner heliosphere intensity at Ulysses intensity-time history interplanetary medium interstellar medium July left panel low energy magnetic field lines magnetosphere major flare maximum intensity measured MeV protons MeV/nuc near-relativistic electrons neutron monitor non-thermal observed onset outer heliosphere Parker Parker spiral particle acceleration peak Phys pitch angle distribution plasma power law propagation proton intensity reconnection relativistic electrons reverse shock right panel sectors seed population September shown in Fig shows the intensity-time solar flare solar minimum solar wind Space Sci spacecraft spectral index spike termination shock trapped velocity Voyager-1