New Horizons in Fundamental Physics

Front Cover
Stefan Schramm, Mirko Schäfer
Springer, Nov 11, 2016 - Science - 389 pages

This volume presents the state-of-the-art in selected topics across modern nuclear physics, covering fields of central importance to research and illustrating their connection to many different areas of physics.

It describes recent progress in the study of superheavy and exotic nuclei, which is pushing our knowledge to ever heavier elements and neutron-richer isotopes. Extending nuclear physics to systems that are many times denser than even the core of an atomic nucleus, one enters the realm of the physics of neutron stars and possibly quark stars, a topic that is intensively investigated with many ground-based and outer-space research missions as well as numerous theoretical works. By colliding two nuclei at very high ultra-relativistic energies one can create a fireball of extremely hot matter, reminiscent of the universe very shortly after the big bang, leading to a phase of melted hadrons and free quarks and gluons, the so-called quark-gluon plasma.

These studies tie up with effects of crucial importance in other fields. During the collision of heavy ions, electric fields of extreme strength are produced, potentially destabilizing the vacuum of the atomic physics system, subsequently leading to the decay of the vacuum state and the emission of positrons. In neutron stars the ultra-dense matter might support extremely high magnetic fields, far beyond anything that can be produced in the laboratory, significantly affecting the stellar properties.

At very high densities general relativity predicts the stellar collapse to a black hole. However, a number of current theoretical activities, modifying Einstein’s theory, point to possible alternative scenarios, where this collapse might be avoided.

These and related topics are addressed in this book in a series of highly readable chapters. In addition, the book includes fundamental analyses of the practicalities involved in transiting to an electricity supply mainly based on renewable energies, investigating this scenario less from an engineering and more from a physics point of view.

While the topics comprise a large scope of activities, the contributions also show an extensive overlap in the methodology and in the analytical and numerical tools involved in tackling these diverse research fields that are the forefront of modern science.

 

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Contents

Intertwining of Greiners Theoretical Works and Our Experimental Studies
3
Eighty Years of Research on SuperHeavy Nuclei
15
Perspectives of Heavy and Superheavy Nuclei Research
30
Superheavy Element ChemistryNew Experimental Results Challenge Theoretical Understanding
41
25 Years of FRS Experiments and New Horizons
55
SHE Research with RareIsotope Beams Challenges and Perspectives and the New Generation of SHE Factories
80
Multimodal Collinear Ternary Fission
91
Clustering in Light Nuclei
103
Part III QEDStrong Fields and High Precision
209
Probing QED Vacuum with Heavy Ions
211
Laser Assisted BreitWheeler and Schwinger Processes
252
A Method to Measure Vacuum Birefringence at FCCee
263
Unifying Quantum ElectroDynamics and ManyBody Perturbation Theory
271
Part IV Astrophysics
283
Simulations of Accretion Disks Around Massive stars
285
Neutron StarsPossibilities and Limits for Exotic Phases
297

Towards Laser Spectroscopy of Superheavy Elements
115
Part II Physics of HeavyIon Collisions
125
Chemical FreezeOut Conditions in Hadron Resonance Gas
126
The QCD Phase Diagram and Hadron Formation in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions
139
Degrees of Freedom of the Quark Gluon Plasma Tested by Heavy Mesons
151
Electromagnetic Emissivity of Hot and Dense Matter
166
Status of Chemical Equilibrium
181
Novel Developments of HYDJET++ Model for Ultrarelativistic HeavyIon Collisions
187
Jet Tomography in HeavyIon CollisionsChallenges Results and Open Problems
198
The Case for an Underground Neutrino Facility in South Africa
307
Part V Special Topics
314
Covariant Hamiltonian Representation of Noethers Theorem and Its Application to SUN Gauge Theories
317
Infrastructure Estimates for a Highly Renewable Global Electricity Grid
332
Power Flow Tracing in Complex Networks
357
Patent Protection of HighLevel Research Results
375
Appendix A Conference Photographs
385
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About the author (2016)

Prof. Dr. Stefan Schramm is teaching at the Institute of theoretical Physics at Frankfurt University and is member of the Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies (FIAS). His main research interests are: Models of Strongly Interacting Matter, Nuclear Astrophysics and Renewable Energies - Modeling the Grid. He is also co-author of the textbook Quantum Chromodynamics (Greiner, Schramm, Stein).

Mirko Schafer received his Diploma in physics from the University of Gießen in 2006. After a PhD in physics at the University of Frankfurt in 2011, he has been a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Department of Mathematics at Aarhus University and at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies. Since 2016 he is working as a Postdoctoral Fellow on complex networked systems and the system integration of renewable energy at the Department of Engineering at Aarhus University.