Diffractive Optics for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells
This thesis introduces a figure of merit for light trapping with photonic nanostructures and shows how different light trapping methods compare, irrespective of material, absorber thickness or type of nanostructure. It provides an overview of the essential aspects of light trapping, offering a solid basis for future designs.
Light trapping with photonic nanostructures is a powerful method of increasing the absorption in thin film solar cells. Many light trapping methods have been studied, but to date there has been no comprehensive figure of merit to compare these different methods quantitatively. This comparison allows us to establish important design rules for highly performing structures; one such rule is the structuring of the absorber layer from both sides, for which the authors introduce a novel and simple layer-transfer technique. A closely related issue is the question of plasmonic vs. dielectric nanostructures; the authors present an experimental demonstration, aided by a detailed theoretical assessment, highlighting the importance of considering the multipass nature of light trapping in a thin film, which is an essential effect that has been neglected in previous work and which allows us to quantify the parasitic losses.
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2 Nanostructures for Enhanced LightTrapping in ThinFilm Silicon Solar Cells
3 Fabrication and Characterisation of Diffractive Nanostructures
5 Conclusions and Outlook
Appendix A A HomeMade UV Nanoimprint Tool
Appendix B Absorption Measurement Setup
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1/f noise absorber layer absorber material absorber slab absorber thickness absorption enhancement absorption measurements allows AMONIL amorphous silicon angle anti-reflection coating assessment back reflector bandwidth chemical crystalline silicon detector device diffraction orders diffractive structure effective electrical electron beam lithography energy enhancement factor etching exposure fabrication film grating higher highlights imprint incident light increase integrating sphere Jmax Jref Lambertian Lambertian Scatterer Lambertian texture light-trapping structures metal nanoparticles Mie theory nanoimprint lithography nanoparticles nanoresist nanostructures nanowires noise optical bandgap optical depth optical losses parameters parasitic absorption parasitic losses path length pattern performance photodetector photonic crystal photovoltaics plasmonic power conversion efficiency properties quantify random reduce reflection refractive index sample Sect setup short-circuit current side silicon absorber silicon solar cells silicon substrate spectral spectrum stamp step supercell surface teff thermal thesis thin thin-film silicon solar thin-film solar cells UV nanoimprint voltage wafer wavelength