## Introduction to Cluster DynamicsClusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a "small" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subject. The authors cover the dynamics of clusters on a broad level, including recent developments of femtosecond laser spectroscopy on the one hand and time-dependent density functional theory calculations on the other. |

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### Contents

About clusters | 1 |

experimental aspects | 39 |

a theoretical perspective | 79 |

Gross properties and trends | 133 |

New frontiers in cluster dynamics | 179 |

Concluding remarks | 247 |

B Gross properties of atoms and solids | 259 |

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### Common terms and phrases

adiabatic allows approximation atoms basic binding bonding Born-Oppenheimer bulk calculations charge cluster dynamics cluster physics collisions computed core Coulomb Coulomb force covalent deformation depends dipole dipole strength discussed in Section electron cloud electron density electronic shell emission ensemble equation example excitation experimental Fermi Fermi energy field Figure finite fragmentation function Hamiltonian intensity interaction ionic background ionization ionization potential ions jellium jellium model kinetic energy Kohn-Sham Kohn-Sham equations large clusters laser laser frequency laser pulse linear magnetic mass mechanism metal clusters methods modes molecular molecules noble metals nuclear nuclei optical response oscillations P-G Reinhard parameters particle peak photon Phys polarizability polarization potential processes properties pseudo-potentials quantum quantum mechanical radius rare gas regime scale shell closures shell effects simple single-electron soft jellium spectra spectroscopy spectrum spherical structure Suraud TDLDA TDLDA-MD temperature theoretical thermal time-dependent tion trends typical valence electrons wavefunctions yields