Fundamental Astronomy

Front Cover
Hannu Karttunen, Pekka Kröger, Heikki Oja, Markku Poutanen, Karl Johan Donner
Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 9, 2007 - Science - 510 pages

Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences.
The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added.
Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

 

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Contents

112 The Contraction of Stars Towards the Main Sequence
244
113 The Main Sequence Phase
246
114 The Giant Phase
249
115 The Final Stages of Evolution
252
116 The Evolution of Close Binary Stars
254
117 Comparison with Observations
256
118 The Origin of the Elements
257
119 Example
259

28 The Galactic Coordinates
21
210 Positional Astronomy
25
211 Constellations
29
212 Star Catalogues and Maps
30
213 Sidereal and Solar Time
32
214 Astronomical Time Systems
34
215 Calendars
38
216 Examples
41
217 Exercises
45
3 Observations and Instruments
47
32 Optical Telescopes
49
33 Detectors and Instruments
64
34 Radio Telescopes
69
35 Other Wavelength Regions
76
36 Other Forms of Energy
79
37 Examples
82
4 Photometric Concepts and Magnitudes
83
42 Apparent Magnitudes
85
43 Magnitude Systems
86
44 Absolute Magnitudes
88
46 Examples
91
47 Exercises
93
5 Radiation Mechanisms
95
52 The Hydrogen Atom
97
53 Line Profiles
99
54 Quantum Numbers Selection Rules Population Numbers
100
55 Molecular Spectra
102
57 Blackbody Radiation
103
58 Temperatures
105
59 Other Radiation Mechanisms
107
510 Radiative Transfer
108
511 Examples
109
512 Exercises
111
6 Celestial Mechanics
113
62 Solution of the Equation of Motion
114
63 Equation of the Orbit and Keplers First Law
116
65 Keplers Second and Third Law
118
66 Systems of Several Bodies
120
67 Orbit Determination
121
69 Escape Velocity
123
610 Virial Theorem
124
611 The Jeans Limit
125
612 Examples
126
613 Exercises
129
7 The Solar System
131
71 Planetary Configurations
133
72 Orbit of the Earth and Visibility of the Sun
134
73 The Orbit of the Moon
135
74 Eclipses and Occultations
138
75 The Structure and Surfaces of Planets
140
76 Atmospheres and Magnetospheres
144
77 Albedos
149
78 Photometry Polarimetry and Spectroscopy
151
79 Thermal Radiation of the Planets
155
711 Venus
158
712 The Earth and the Moon
161
713 Mars
168
714 Jupiter
172
715 Saturn
178
716 Uranus and Neptune
181
717 Minor Bodies of the Solar System
186
718 Origin of the Solar System
197
719 Examples
201
720 Exercises
204
8 Stellar Spectra
207
82 The Harvard Spectral Classification
209
83 The Yerkes Spectral Classification
212
84 Peculiar Spectra
214
85 The HertzsprungRussell Diagram
215
86 Model Atmospheres
216
87 What Do the Observations Tell Us?
217
88 Exercise
219
9 Binary Stars and Stellar Masses
221
91 Visual Binaries
222
94 Photometric Binary Stars
224
95 Examples
226
96 Exercises
227
10 Stellar Structure
229
102 Physical State of the Gas
232
103 Stellar Energy Sources
233
104 Stellar Models
237
105 Examples
240
106 Exercises
242
11 Stellar Evolution
243
1110 Exercises
261
12 The Sun
263
122 The Atmosphere
266
123 Solar Activity
270
124 Example
276
125 Exercises
277
13 Variable Stars
279
131 Classification
280
132 Pulsating Variables
281
133 Eruptive Variables
283
134 Examples
289
135 Exercises
290
14 Compact Stars
291
142 Neutron Stars
292
143 Black Holes
298
144 Xray Binaries
302
145 Examples
304
146 Exercises
305
15 The Interstellar Medium
307
152 Interstellar Gas
318
153 Interstellar Molecules
326
154 The Formation of Protostars
329
155 Planetary Nebulae
331
156 Supernova Remnants
332
157 The Hot Corona of the Milky Way
335
158 Cosmic Rays and the Interstellar Magnetic Field
336
159 Examples
337
1510Exercises
338
16 Star Clusters and Associations
339
163 Globular Star Clusters
343
164 Example
344
165 Exercises
345
17 The Milky Way
347
171 Methods of Distance Measurement
349
172 Stellar Statistics
351
173 The Rotation of the Milky Way
355
174 Structural Components of the Milky Way
361
175 The Formation and Evolution of the Milky Way
363
176 Examples
365
177 Exercises
366
18 Galaxies
367
182 Luminosities and Masses
372
183 Galactic Structures
375
184 Dynamics of Galaxies
379
185 Stellar Ages and Element Abundances in Galaxies
381
187 Active Galaxies and Quasars
384
188 The Origin and Evolution of Galaxies
389
189 Exercises
391
19 Cosmology
393
192 The Cosmological Principle
398
193 Homogeneous and Isotropic Universes
400
194 The Friedmann Models
401
195 Cosmological Tests
403
196 History of the Universe
405
197 The Formation of Structure
406
198 The Future of the Universe
410
199 Examples
413
1910Exercises
414
20 Astrobiology
415
202 Chemistry of life
416
203 Prerequisites of life
417
204 Hazards
418
205 Origin of life
419
206 Are we Martians?
422
207 Life in the Solar system
424
209 Detecting life
426
2011 Number of civilizations
427
2012 Exercises
428
Appendices
431
A Mathematics
432
A3 Taylor Series
434
A 5 Matrices
436
A6 Multiple Integrals
438
A7 Numerical Solution of an Equation
439
B Theory of Relativity
441
Lorentz Transformation Minkowski Space
442
B3 General Relativity
443
C Tables
445
Answers to Exercises
467
Further Reading
471
Photograph Credits
475
Name and Subject Index
477
Colour Supplement
491
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