Plasma Physics: An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas
This book is an outgrowth of courses in plasma physics which I have taught at Kiel University for many years. During this time I have tried to convince my students that plasmas as different as gas dicharges, fusion plasmas and space plasmas can be described in a uni ed way by simple models. The challenge in teaching plasma physics is its apparent complexity. The wealth of plasma phenomena found in so diverse elds makes it quite different from atomic physics, where atomic structure, spectral lines and chemical binding can all be derived from a single equation—the Schrödinger equation. I positively accept the variety of plasmas and refrain from subdividing plasma physics into the traditional, but arti cially separated elds, of hot, cold and space plasmas. This is why I like to confront my students, and the readers of this book, with examples from so many elds. By this approach, I believe, they will be able to become discoverers who can see the commonality between a falling apple and planetary motion. As an experimentalist, I am convinced that plasma physics can be best understood from a bottom-up approach with many illustrating examples that give the students con dence in their understanding of plasma processes. The theoretical framework of plasma physics can then be introduced in several steps of re nement. In the end, the student (or reader) will see that there is something like the Schrödinger equation, namely the Vlasov-Maxwell model of plasmas, from which nearly all phenomena in collisionless plasmas can be derived.
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2 Definition of the Plasma State
3 Single Particle Motion in Electric and Magnetic Fields
4 Stochastic Processes in a Plasma
5 Fluid Models
6 Plasma Waves
7 Plasma Boundaries
9 Kinetic Description of Plasmas
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acceleration ambipolar anode atoms becomes Boltzmann bulk plasma cathode collisions confinement Coulomb Debye Debye length defined described dielectric function diffusion diode dispersion relation distribution function drift velocity dust charge dust cloud dust grain dust particles dusty plasmas electric field electron density electron temperature electrons and ions energy equilibrium field line floating potential flow flux force fusion gas discharge glow gradient Hence instability interaction ion density ionization ionosphere kinetic Landau damping Langmuir laser linear magnetic field mass Maxwellian mode momentum negative neutral number of particles obtain orbit oscillations parameter perturbation phase velocity Phys Piel plasma density plasma frequency Plasma Physics plasma potential positive pressure probe propagation quasineutral radial radius refractive index region resonance result Sect sheath shielding shown in Fig space charge speed surface thermal tokamak trajectory tube vector Vlasov equation voltage wave wavelength Yukawa balls