## Mass MetrologyThis book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are presented. Starting with the necessity of redefining the unit kilogram in terms of physical constants, various methods of defining the kilogram in terms of physical constants are described. The kilogram can be defined by Avogadro’s constant, ion collection of some heavy elements, levitation, voltage and Watt Balance. The detection of very small mass of the order of zeptogram through Nanotechnolgy is also discussed. Latest recommendations of CIPM are given. |

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### Contents

1 | |

TwoPan EqualArm Balances | 19 |

SinglePan Mechanical Balances | 49 |

Electronic Balances and Effect of Gravity | 65 |

Strain Gauge Load Cells | 89 |

Various Types of Transducers for Weighing | 121 |

Testing of Electronic Balances | 149 |

Air Density and Buoyancy Correction | 171 |

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### Common terms and phrases

air density artefacts atoms Avogadro constant beam BIPM body built-in weights calculated calibration cantilever change in mass CIPM CODATA coil cylinder density of air detection determined device effect electromagnetic EMFC equal frequency given in Table giving Hence humidity interferometer International Prototype iridium kilogram known mass Laboratory latitude Legal Metrology load cell mass difference mass standards mass value material matrix maximum permissible error measurement method Metrology micro-cantilever minimum dead load molar mass National Physical Laboratory National Prototype nominal value observations OIML output Phys Piezoelectric Planck constant Prototype of Kilogram quantum Hall resistance ratio repeatability resonance rest point rider S.V. Gupta sensitivity reciprocal shown in Fig significant error silicon spring element standard deviation standard weight strain gauge surface area temperature test load transducer unit of mass vacuum variance variation verification interval vibration voltage volume watt balance weighing equations weighing instruments weighing machines zero