Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Bulk and Surface Electronic Structures

Front Cover
Photoelectron spectroscopy is now becoming more and more required to investigate electronic structures of various solid materials in the bulk, on surfaces as well as at buried interfaces. The energy resolution was much improved in the last decade down to 1 meV in the low photon energy region. Now this technique is available from a few eV up to 10 keV by use of lasers, electron cyclotron resonance lamps in addition to synchrotron radiation and X-ray tubes. High resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now widely applied to band mapping of materials. It attracts a wide attention from both fundamental science and material engineering. Studies of the dynamics of excited states are feasible by time of flight spectroscopy with fully utilizing the pulse structures of synchrotron radiation as well as lasers including the free electron lasers (FEL). Spin resolved studies also made dramatic progress by using higher efficiency spin detectors and two dimensional spin detectors. Polarization dependent measurements in the whole photon energy spectrum of the spectra provide useful information on the symmetry of orbitals. The book deals with the fundamental concepts and approaches for the application of this technique to materials studies. Complementary techniques such as inverse photoemission, photoelectron diffraction, photon spectroscopy including infrared and X-ray and scanning tunneling spectroscopy are presented. This book provides not only a wide scope of photoelectron spectroscopy of solids but also extends our understanding of electronic structures beyond photoelectron spectroscopy.
 

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Contents

1 Introduction
1
2 Theoretical Background
7
3 Instrumentation and Methodology
33
4 Bulk and Surface Sensitivity of Photoelectron Spectroscopy
91
5 Examples of Angle Integrated Photoelectron Spectroscopy
99
6 Angle Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy in the h nu Region of sim15 to 200 eV
117
7 High Resolution Soft Xray AngleIntegrated and Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Correlated Electron Systems
154
8 Hard Xray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
219
10 Inverse Photoemission
279
11 Magnetic Dichroism and Spin Polarization in Photoelectron Spectroscopy
294
12 Photoelectron Diffraction and Photoelectron Holography
331
13 Complementary Techniques for Studying Bulk Electronic States
339
14 Surface Spectroscopy by Scanning Tunneling Microscope
358
15 Outlook
367
List of Samples
369
Index
371

9 Very Low Photon Energy Photoelectron Spectroscopy
257

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