Kinetics of Metal-Gas Interactions at Low Temperatures: Hydriding, Oxidation, Poisoning
Kinetics of Metal-Gas Interactions at Low Temperatures is devoted to the formation of a natural oxide film. This few nm thick surface layer is produced instantaneously if oxygen or water vapor is present in the gas atmosphere. It is responsible for the corrosion behavior, for wear and friction of metallic materials, as well as for hydrogen embrittlement or poisoning of catalytic surface reactions. Oxidation impedes experiments in surface sciences and production processes in modern thin-film technology. It can reliably be avoided only if expensive ultra-high vacuum techniques are applied. This monograph presents an introduction to the subject in a tutorial style. It demonstrates how complex metal-gas interactions can be analyzed by standard procedures of chemical kinetics.
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absorption rate acceptor activation energy amount of absorbed bulk chemical potential chemisorbed chemisorption chemisorption species conduction band defects defined depth resolutions desorption diffusion control dissociation electric field electronic current enthalpy equilibrium constant example experiments exposure film function gas molecules gas phase H2 molecules hydride hydride formation hydride layer hydrogen absorption hydrogen atoms initial interstitials ionic lattice plane limit low-temperature oxidation mbar measured metal phase metal surfaces metal/oxide interface methods molecules monolayer Mott equilibrium potential Mott potential normally orders of magnitude oxidation curves oxide growth oxide scale oxide surface oxygen oxygen atoms parameters partial reactions partial steps physisorbed physisorption poisoning present pressure dependence problem processes quantity rate determining step rate law reac reaction front reaction kinetics reaction mechanism reaction probability reaction products reaction rate sample surface Sect semiconducting simulated space charge stage structure surface layers surface penetration techniques temperature thermochemistry tion values