## The Physics of Quantum Information: Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Teleportation, Quantum ComputationDirk Bouwmeester, Artur K. Ekert, Anton Zeilinger Information is stored, transmitted and processed by physical means. Thus, the concept of information and computation can be formulated in the con text of a physical theory and the study of information requires ultimately experimentation. This sentence, innocuous at first glance, leads to non-trivial consequences. Following Moore's law, about every 18 months microprocessors double their speed and, it seems, the only way to make them significantly faster is to make them smaller. In the not too distant future they will reach the point where the logic gates are so small that they consist of only a few atoms each. Then quantum-mechanical effects will become important. Thus, if computers are to continue to become faster (and therefore smaller), new, quantum technology must replace or supplement what we have now. But it turns out that such technology can offer much more than smaller and faster microprocessors. Several recent theoretical results have shown that quantum effects may be harnessed to provide qualitatively new modes of communication and computation, in some cases much more powerful than their classical counterparts. This new quantum technology is being born in many laboratories. The last two decades have witnessed experiments in which single quantum particles of different kinds were controlled and manipulated with an unprecedented preci sion. Many "gedanken" experiments, so famous in the early days of quantum mechanics, have been carried out. |

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### Contents

S Bose | 12 |

Quantum Cryptography | 15 |

University of Geneva Department of Computer Science | 20 |

Palma | 24 |

Centre for Quantum Computation Institut für Experimentalphysik | 27 |

Quantum Dense Coding | 49 |

Concepts of Quantum Computation | 93 |

Clarendon Laboratory Universität Wien | 100 |

S F Huelga W Lange | 162 |

Quantum Networks | 190 |

Decoherence and Quantum Error Correction | 221 |

Entanglement Purification | 261 |

294 | |

298 | |

311 | |

Experiments Leading Towards | 133 |

### Other editions - View all

The Physics of Quantum Information: Quantum Cryptography, Quantum ... Dirk Bouwmeester,Artur K. Ekert,Anton Zeilinger No preview available - 2010 |

The Physics of Quantum Information: Quantum Cryptography, Quantum ... Dirk Bouwmeester,Artur K. Ekert,Anton Zeilinger No preview available - 2013 |

### Common terms and phrases

Alice and Bob Alice's amplitude atom basis beam beamsplitter Bell state measurement Bell-state analyser bits Bob's classical computation coherent coincidence components cooling correlations corresponding coupling decoherence detection detectors detuning down-conversion eavesdropper encoded entangled pair entangled particles entangled photons entanglement swapping error correction example excited experiment experimental exponentially factorise fibre fidelity frequency function Grover's algorithm Hadamard transformation Hamiltonian implement initial input interaction interference interferometer laser light fields linear maximally entangled mode momentum motion obtain operations optical orthogonal output path performed phase shift photon physical polarisation entangled polarising beamsplitter possible probability problem procedure protocol pulse purification quantum algorithm quantum channel quantum computation quantum cryptography quantum entanglement quantum gate quantum information quantum key distribution quantum mechanics quantum system quantum teleportation qubit realise result rotation scheme setup shown in Fig sideband single photon spin string superposition techniques transition transmission trapped ions unitary vibrational