Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS: Proceedings of the NSF/AFOSR/ASME Workshop on Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS held in Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A., 9–11 November 1997

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Bharat Bhushan
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 6, 2012 - Science - 655 pages
Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is already about a billion dollars a year industry and is growing rapidly. So far major emphasis has been placed on the fabrication processes for various devices. There are serious issues related to tribology, mechanics, surfacechemistry and materials science in the operationand manufacturingof many MEMS devices and these issues are preventing an even faster commercialization. Very little is understood about tribology and mechanical properties on micro- to nanoscales of the materials used in the construction of MEMS devices. The MEMS community needs to be exposed to the state-of-the-artoftribology and vice versa. Fundamental understanding of friction/stiction, wear and the role of surface contamination and environmental debris in micro devices is required. There are significantadhesion, friction and wear issues in manufacturing and actual use, facing the MEMS industry. Very little is understood about the tribology of bulk silicon and polysilicon films used in the construction ofthese microdevices. These issues are based on surface phenomenaand cannotbe scaled down linearly and these become increasingly important with the small size of the devices. Continuum theory breaks down in the analyses, e. g. in fluid flow of micro-scale devices. Mechanical properties ofpolysilicon and other films are not well characterized. Roughness optimization can help in tribological improvements. Monolayers of lubricants and other materials need to be developed for ultra-low friction and near zero wear. Hard coatings and ion implantation techniques hold promise.
 

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Contents

Tribology of MEMS Components and Materials
5
Integrated MEMS in Conventional CMOS
17
Facilitating Choices of Machining Tools and Materials for Miniaturization
30
Microfabrication Technologies for High Performance Microactuators
53
Surface Characterization of NonLithographic Micromachining
73
Power MEMS Materials and Structures
95
MEMS Opportunities in Accelerometers and Gyros and the Microtribology
108
Macroscale Processes
135
Advantages and Limitations of Silicon as a Bearing Material for MEMS
341
Surface Force Induced Failures in Microelectromechanical Systems
367
Development Fabrication and Testing of a MultiStage Micro Gear System
396
Phase Transformations in Semiconductors under Contact Loading
431
Tribological Effects of Surface Roughness in MEMS Devices
455
Contact Resistance Measurements and Modeling of an Electrostatically
471
Mechanical Property Determination Using Nanoindentation Techniques
487
Stress in Thin Films for MEMS Actuators
509

Frictional Instabilities
149
Mechanics of Wear From Conventional Components to MEMS
165
Surface Roughness Induced Effects in Hydrodynamic Lubrication
185
Transition from Elastohydrodynamic to Partial Lubrication
207
Micro to Nanoscale Processes
229
A New Method for Characterizing Thin Silane Films
247
The Tribology of Hydrocarbon Surfaces Investigated Using Molecular
285
DualAxis Piezoresistive AFM Cantilever for Independent Detection
301
Tribological Issues of Polysilicon SurfaceMicromachining
324
Modification and Characterization of Surfaces
529
Formation of Carbon Films on Ceramic Carbides by High Temperature
559
Wear and Nanomechanical Studies of Silicon Oxide and Silicon Nitride
579
Lubrication of Polysilicon Micromechanisms with Alkylsiloxane Self
597
Tribology Research in MEMS
615
Panel Discussion Report
633
Editors Vita
647
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