Non-Classical Crystallization of Thin Films and Nanostructures in CVD and PVD Processes
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes.
Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively involved in the growth of films or nanostructures. This new understanding is called the theory of charged nanoparticles (TCN). This book describes how the non-classical crystallization mechanism can be applied to the growth of thin films and nanostructures in gas phase synthesis.
Based on the author’s graduate lecture course, the book is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the field of thin film and nanostructure growth or crystal growth. It is hoped that a new understanding of the growth processes of thin films and nanostructures will reduce trial-and-error in research and in industrial fabrication processes.
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2 Thermodynamics of Physical and Chemical Vapour Deposition
5 Diamond Synthesis at Low Pressure
6 Growth Mechanism of CVD Diamond
7 Growth Mechanism of CVD Silicon
8 Other Works Related to Nonclassical Crystallization of Thin Films and Nanostructures
9 Experimental Confirmation of Charged Nanoparticles During Atmospheric CVD Using Differential Mobility Analyser
10 Experimental Confirmation of Charged Nanoparticles at Low Pressure
11 Deposition Behavior of Charged Nanoparticles
12 Bias Effect on Deposition Behaviour of Charged Nanoparticles
13 ChargeEnhanced Kinetics
14 Implications and Applications
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2D nucleation amorphous Appl Phys Lett carbon nanotubes Chap charged clusters charged nanoparticles chemical potential chemical vapor deposition CNTs Cryst Growth CVD diamond CVD process decrease dense films deposition behavior deposition rate diameter diamond and graphite diamond crystals diamond CVD diamond deposition diamond films driving force electric field electron epitaxial equilibrium FESEM images film growth films and nanostructures films deposited flow rate gas mixture gas phase nucleation Gibbs free energy graphite grow growth rate HFCVD hot filament hot wire Hwang NM HWCVD hydrogen hypothesis increased ions iron substrate kinetics liquid-like low pressure metastable microstructure microwave plasma morphology nanocrystals nanostructures nanowires negative CNPs negatively charged non-classical crystallization nucleation nucleation barrier nuclei number concentration particles plasma reactor temperature respectively sccm shown in Fig shows SiH4 silicon films silicon nanowires solid soot Springer Science+Business Media structure substrate substrate temperature supersaturation ratio thermodynamics thin films Torr Wien filter wire temperature Yoon