Negroes in the United States

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1904 - African Americans - 333 pages
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Page 45 - manufacturing and mechanical pursuits" 66 Total. 876 Prom the point of view of the nature of the work performed this group is a composite one, made up of items from the census groups "domestic and personal service," "trade and transportation," and "manufacturing and mechanical pursuits." The justification of this composition lies in the unity of the group as regards the grade of work ; understanding by "grade/'' as in the case of the first group considered, not merely the amount of the attached wage,...
Page 4 - Write white, black, mulatto, quadroon, octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian, according to the color or race of the person enumerated. Be particularly careful to distinguish between blacks, mulattoes, quadroons, and octoroons. The word "black" should be used to describe those persons who have three-fourths or more black blood; "mulatto...
Page 4 - The word is here generic, and includes quadroons, octoroons, and all persons having any perceptible trace of African blood. Important scientific results depend upon the correct determination of this class in schedules 1 and 2.
Page 69 - The renters for fixed money rentals are the first of the emerging classes, and form five per cent of the families. The sole advantage of this small class is their freedom to choose their crops, and the increased responsibility which comes through having money transactions. While some of the renters differ little in condition from the metayers, yet on the whole they are more intelligent and responsible persons, and are the ones who eventually become landowners.
Page 4 - Sex," insert the letter M for male, and F for female, opposite the name, in all cases, as the fact may be. 6. Under heading 6, entitled "Color," in all cases where the person is white, leave the space blank; in all cases where the person is black, insert the letter B; if mulatto, insert M. It is very desirable that these particulars be carefully regarded.
Page 69 - ... mules. The change from cropper to tenant was accomplished by fixing the rent. If, now, the rent fixed was reasonable, this was an incentive to the tenant to strive. On the other hand, if the rent was too high, or if the land deteriorated, the result was to discourage and check the efforts of the black peasantry. There is no doubt that the latter case is true...
Page 57 - A farm, for census purposes, includes all the land under one management, used for raising crops and pasturing live stock, with the wood lots, swamps, meadows, etc., connected therewith, whether consisting of one tract or of several separate tracts. It also includes the house in which the farmer resides, and all other buildings used by him in connection with his farming operations, together with the land upon which they are located.
Page 69 - It is an unsatisfactory arrangement, both for hirer and hired, and is usually in vogue on poor land with hard-pressed owners. Above the croppers come the great mass of the black population who work the land on their own responsibility, paying rent in cotton and supported...
Page 69 - Ten" of the land. The croppers are entirely without capital, even in the limited sense of food or money to keep them from seedtime to harvest. All they furnish is their labor; the land-owner furnishes land, stock, tools, seed, and house; and at the end of the year the laborer gets from a third to a half of the crop. Out of his share, however, comes pay and interest for food and clothing advanced him during the...
Page 313 - County 3 and under 10 10 and under 20 20 and under 50 50 and under 100 100 and under...

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