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according America animal Appalachian appear Atlantic Azoic basin become beds border called carbonate Carboniferous cause changes characteristic close coal coast color common consisting containing coral course covered Cretaceous crystals currents deposits depth Devonian direction distribution earth east eastern elevation England epoch Europe evidence existence extent fact feet feldspar formation fossils genera genus geological glacier globe heat height inches interior iron islands kinds Lake land later layers less Lignite lime limestone Lower mass material Michigan miles mineral Mountains nature nearly North northern observed occur ocean origin period plants portion present probably progress quartz range region remains represented River rocks sand sandstone shales shells showing side silica Silurian slope sometimes species stones strata stream structure surface thickness true Upper usually valley waters whole York
Page 548 - Tigers as large again as the biggest Asiatic species lurked in the ancient thickets; elephants of nearly twice the bulk of the largest individuals that now exist in Africa or Ceylon roamed in herds ; at least two species of rhinoceros forced their way through the primaeval forest ; and the lakes and rivers were tenanted by hippopotami as bulky, and with as great tusks as those of Africa.
Page x - New crystalline forms might be found in the depths of space, but the laws of crystallography would be the same that are displayed before us among the crystals of the earth. A textbook on Crystallography, Physics, or Celestial Mechanics, printed in our printing-offices, would serve for the universe. The universe, if open throughout to our explorations, would vastly expand our knowledge, and science might have a more beautiful superstructure, but its basement-laws would be the same. The earth, therefore,...
Page 733 - ... (5.) The sun, moon, and stars. (6.) The lower animals, those that swarm in the waters, and the creeping and flying species of the land. (7.) Beasts of prey ("creeping" here meaning "prowling"). (8.) Man. In this succession, we observe not merely an order of events, like that deduced from science ; there is a system in the arrangement, and a far-reaching prophecy, to which philosophy could not have attained, however instructed.
Page 727 - The earth in igneous fusion, had no more distinction of parts than a germ. Afterwards, the continents, while still beneath the waters, began to take shape. Then, as the seas deepened, the first dry land appeared, low, barren, and lifeless. Under slow intestine movements and the concurrent action of the enveloping waters, the dry land expanded, strata formed, and as these processes went on, mountains by degrees rose, each in its appointed place, finally in the last stage of the development, the Alps...
Page 15 - The relation of the oceans to the mountain-borders is so exact that the rule-of-three form of statement cannot be far from the truth. As the size of the Appalachians to the size of the Atlantic, so is the size of the Rocky chain to the size of the Pacific. Also, As the height of the Rocky chain to the extent of the North Pacific, so are the height and boldness of the Andes to the extent of the South Pacific.
Page 503 - The large vertebrae were formerly so abundant over the country in Alabama that they were used for making walls, or were burned to rid the fields of them.
Page 732 - In the plan of an infinite God, centuries are required for the maturing of some of the plants with which the earth is adorned. The order of events in the Scripture cosmogony corresponds essentially with that which has been given. There was first a void and formless earth : this was literally true of the " heavens and the earth," if they were in the condition of a gaseous fluid.
Page 732 - The central thought of each step in the Scripture cosmogony — for example, Light, — the dividing of the fluid earth from the fluid around it, individualizing the earth, — the arrangement of its land and water, — vegetation, — and so on — is brought out in the simple and natural style of a sublime intellect, wise for its times, but unversed in the depths of science which the future was to reveal. The idea of vegetation to such a one would be vegetation as he knew it ; and so it is described.
Page 725 - Azoic nucleus of North America, spreading southward, formed a peninsula in northern New York. Even this bend in the nucleus continues in the finished continent, for New England has the same outline. Its east and south coastlines are but a repetition of the east and south coast-lines of the old Azoic peninsula. This exact copying of the nucleus by the growing continent proves, better than all other evidence, the grand fact that the progress has been through oscillating forces acting against the stable...
Page 398 - The evidence of this is of the simplest order, and patent to every eye. Portions of the Upper Devonian wall against the lowest portions of the Lower Silurian. The thickness of the rocks between is, of course, the exact measure of the downthrow, which is therefore twenty times as great as the celebrated Pennine Fault in England. Yet a man can stand astride across the crevice, with one foot on Trenton limestone and the other on Hamilton slates...